The Empire of Japan had three emperors, although it came to an end partway through Shōwa's reign. The emperors were given
posthumous names, and the emperors are as follows:
The historical state is frequently referred to as the "Empire of Japan", the "Japanese Empire", or "Imperial Japan" in English. In Japanese it is referred to as Dai Nippon Teikoku (大日本帝國), which translates to "Empire of Great Japan" (Dai "Great", Nippon "Japanese", Teikoku "Empire"). Teikoku is itself composed of the nouns Tei "referring to an emperor" and -koku "nation, state", literally "Imperial State" or "Imperial Realm" (compare the
This meaning is significant in terms of geography, encompassing Japan, and its surrounding areas. The nomenclature Empire of Japan had existed since the anti-Tokugawa domains,
Chōshū, which founded their new government during the
Meiji Restoration, with the intention of forming a modern state to resist
Western domination. Later the Empire emerged as a
great power in the world.
Due to its name in kanji characters and its flag, it was also given the
exonyms "Empire of the Sun" and "Empire of the Rising Sun."
The following years saw increased foreign trade and interaction; commercial treaties between the
Tokugawa shogunate and Western countries were signed. In large part due to the humiliating terms of these
unequal treaties, the shogunate soon faced internal hostility, which materialized into a radical,
xenophobic movement, the sonnō jōi (literally "Revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians").
On November 9, 1867,
Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned from his post and authorities to the
Emperor, agreeing to "be the instrument for carrying out" imperial orders, leading to the end of the Tokugawa shogunate. However, while Yoshinobu's resignation had created a nominal void at the highest level of government, his apparatus of state continued to exist. Moreover, the shogunal government, the Tokugawa family in particular, remained a prominent force in the evolving political order and retained many executive powers, a prospect hard-liners from Satsuma and Chōshū found intolerable.
On January 3, 1868, Satsuma-Chōshū forces seized the
imperial palace in
Kyoto, and the following day had the fifteen-year-old
Emperor Meiji declare his own restoration to full power. Although the majority of the imperial consultative assembly was happy with the formal declaration of direct rule by the court and tended to support a continued collaboration with the Tokugawa,
Saigō Takamori, leader of the Satsuma clan, threatened the assembly into abolishing the title shōgun and ordered the confiscation of Yoshinobu's lands.[m]
On January 17, 1868, Yoshinobu declared "that he would not be bound by the proclamation of the Restoration and called on the court to rescind it". On January 24, Yoshinobu decided to prepare an attack on Kyoto, occupied by Satsuma and Chōshū forces. This decision was prompted by his learning of a series of
arson attacks in Edo, starting with the burning of the outworks of
Edo Castle, the main Tokugawa residence.
The Boshin War (戊辰戦争, Boshin Sensō) was fought between January 1868 and May 1869. The alliance of samurai from southern and western domains and court officials had now secured the cooperation of the young Emperor Meiji, who ordered the dissolution of the two-hundred-year-old Tokugawa shogunate. Tokugawa Yoshinobu launched a military campaign to seize the emperor's court in Kyoto. However, the tide rapidly turned in favor of the smaller but relatively modernized imperial faction and resulted in defections of many daimyōs to the Imperial side. The
Battle of Toba–Fushimi was a decisive victory in which a combined army from Chōshū, Tosa, and Satsuma domains defeated the Tokugawa army. A series of battles were then fought in pursuit of supporters of the Shogunate; Edo surrendered to the Imperial forces and afterward, Yoshinobu personally surrendered. Yoshinobu was stripped of all his power by Emperor Meiji and most of Japan accepted the emperor's rule.
Pro-Tokugawa remnants retreated to northern Honshū (
Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei) and later to Ezo (present-day
Hokkaidō), where they established the breakaway
Republic of Ezo. An expeditionary force was dispatched by the new government and the Ezo Republic forces were overwhelmed. The
siege of Hakodate came to an end in May 1869 and the remaining forces surrendered.
Charter Oath was made public at the enthronement of Emperor Meiji of Japan on April 7, 1868. The Oath outlined the main aims and the course of action to be followed during Emperor Meiji's reign, setting the legal stage for Japan's modernization. The
Meiji leaders also aimed to boost morale and win financial support for the
Japan dispatched the
Iwakura Mission in 1871. The mission traveled the world in order to renegotiate the
unequal treaties with the United States and European countries that Japan had been forced into during the Tokugawa shogunate, and to gather information on western social and economic systems, in order to effect the modernization of Japan. Renegotiation of the unequal treaties was universally unsuccessful, but close observation of the American and European systems inspired members on their return to bring about modernization initiatives in Japan. Japan made a
territorial delimitation treaty with
Russia in 1875, gaining all the
Kuril islands in exchange for
The Japanese government sent observers to Western countries to observe and learn their practices, and also paid "
foreign advisors" in a variety of fields to come to Japan to educate the populace. For instance, the judicial system and
constitution were modeled after
Prussia, described by
Saburō Ienaga as "an attempt to control popular thought with a blend of
German conservatism." The government also outlawed customs linked to Japan's feudal past, such as publicly displaying and wearing
katana and the
top knot, both of which were characteristic of the
samurai class, which was abolished together with the caste system. This would later bring the Meiji government into
conflict with the samurai.
Several writers, under the constant threat of assassination from their political foes, were influential in winning Japanese support for
westernization. One such writer was
Fukuzawa Yukichi, whose works included "Conditions in the West," "
Leaving Asia", and "An Outline of a Theory of Civilization," which detailed Western society and his own philosophies. In the
Meiji Restoration period, military and economic power was emphasized. Military strength became the means for national development and stability. Imperial Japan became the only non-Western
world power and a major force in
East Asia in about 25 years as a result of industrialization and economic development.
The rise of Japan to a world power during the past 80 years is the greatest miracle in world history. The mighty empires of antiquity, the major political institutions of the Middle Ages and the early modern era, the Spanish Empire, the British Empire, all needed centuries to achieve their full strength. Japan's rise has been meteoric. After only 80 years, it is one of the few great powers that determine the fate of the world.
Transposition in social order and cultural destruction
In the 1860s, Japan began to experience great social turmoil and rapid modernization. The feudal caste system in Japan formally ended in 1869 with the
Meiji restoration. In 1871, the newly formed
Meiji government issued a decree called Senmin Haishirei (
賤民廃止令Edict Abolishing Ignoble Classes) giving
burakumin equal legal status. It is currently better known as the Kaihōrei (
解放令Emancipation Edict). However, the elimination of their economic monopolies over certain occupations actually led to a decline in their general living standards, while social discrimination simply continued. For example, the ban on the consumption of meat from livestock was lifted in 1871, and many former burakumin moved on to work in
abattoirs and as
butchers. However, slow-changing social attitudes, especially in the countryside, meant that abattoirs and workers were met with hostility from local residents. Continued ostracism as well as the decline in living standards led to former burakumin communities turning into slum areas.
The social tension continued to grow during the
Meiji period, affecting religious practices and institutions. Conversion from traditional faith was no longer legally forbidden, officials lifted the 250-year ban on Christianity, and missionaries of established Christian churches reentered Japan. The traditional
syncreticism between Shinto and
Buddhism ended. Losing the protection of the Japanese government which Buddhism had enjoyed for centuries, Buddhist monks faced radical difficulties in sustaining their institutions, but their activities also became less restrained by governmental policies and restrictions. As social conflicts emerged in this last decade of the
Edo period, some new religious movements appeared, which were directly influenced by
Emperor Ogimachi issued edicts to ban Catholicism in 1565 and 1568, but to little effect. Beginning in 1587 with imperial regent Toyotomi Hideyoshi's ban on Jesuit missionaries, Christianity was repressed as a threat to national unity. Under Hideyoshi and the succeeding
Tokugawa shogunate, Catholic Christianity was repressed and adherents were persecuted. After the Tokugawa shogunate banned Christianity in 1620, it ceased to exist publicly. Many Catholics went underground, becoming hidden Christians (隠れキリシタン, kakure kirishitan), while others lost their lives. After Japan was opened to foreign powers in 1853, many Christian clergymen were sent from Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox churches, though proselytism was still banned. Only after the Meiji Restoration, was Christianity re-established in Japan. Freedom of religion was introduced in 1871, giving all Christian communities the right to legal existence and preaching.
Divie Bethune McCartee was the first ordained
missionary to visit Japan, in 1861–1862. His gospel
tract translated into Japanese was among the first Protestant literature in Japan. In 1865, McCartee moved back to
Ningbo, China, but others have followed in his footsteps. There was a burst of growth of Christianity in the late 19th century when Japan re-opened its doors to the West. Protestant church growth slowed dramatically in the early 20th century under the influence of the military government during the
Under the Meiji Restoration, the practices of the samurai classes, deemed feudal and unsuitable for modern times following the end of sakoku in 1853, resulted in a number of edicts intended to 'modernise' the appearance of upper class Japanese men. With the Dampatsurei Edict of 1871 issued by
Emperor Meiji during the early
Meiji Era, men of the samurai classes were forced to cut their hair short, effectively abandoning the
chonmage (chonmage) hairstyle.: 149
During the early 20th century, the government was suspicious towards a number of unauthorized religious movements and periodically made attempts to suppress them. Government suppression was especially severe from the 1930s until the early 1940s, when the growth of
Japanese nationalism and
State Shinto were closely linked. Under the Meiji regime lèse majesté prohibited insults against the Emperor and his Imperial House, and also against some major Shinto shrines which were believed to be tied strongly to the Emperor. The government strengthened its control over religious institutions that were considered to undermine State Shinto or nationalism.
The majority of
Japanese castles were
smashed and destroyed in the late 19th century in the Meiji restoration by the Japanese people and government in order to modernize and westernize Japan and break from their past feudal era of the Daimyo and Shoguns. It was only due to the
1964 Summer Olympics in Japan that cheap concrete replicas of those castles were built for tourists. The vast majority of castles in Japan today are new replicas made out of concrete. In 1959 a concrete keep was built for Nagoya castle.
During the Meiji restoration's
Shinbutsu bunri, tens of thousands of Japanese Buddhist religious idols and temples were smashed and destroyed. Many statues still lie in ruins. Replica temples were rebuilt with concrete. Japan then closed and shut done tens of thousands of traditional old Shinto shrines in the
Shrine Consolidation Policy and the Meiji government built the new modern
15 shrines of the
Kenmu restoration as a political move to link the Meiji restoration to the Kenmu restoration for their new
State Shinto cult.
Japanese had to look at old paintings in order to find out what the
Horyuji temple used to look like when they rebuilt it. The rebuilding was originally planned for the Shōwa era.
The Japanese used mostly concrete in 1934 to rebuild the
Togetsukyo Bridge, unlike the original destroyed wooden version of the bridge from 836.
The constitution recognized the need for change and modernization after the removal of the
We, the Successor to the prosperous Throne of Our Predecessors, do humbly and solemnly swear to the Imperial Founder of Our House and to Our other Imperial Ancestors that, in pursuance of a great policy co-extensive with the Heavens and with the Earth, We shall maintain and secure from decline the ancient form of government. ... In consideration of the progressive tendency of the course of human affairs and in parallel with the advance of civilization, We deem it expedient, in order to give clearness and distinctness to the instructions bequeathed by the Imperial Founder of Our House and by Our other Imperial Ancestors, to establish fundamental laws. ...
Imperial Japan was founded, de jure, after the 1889 signing of
Constitution of the Empire of Japan. The constitution formalized much of the Empire's political structure and gave many responsibilities and powers to the Emperor.
Article 1. The Empire of Japan shall be reigned over and governed by a line of Emperors unbroken for ages eternal.
Article 2. The Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by Imperial male descendants, according to the provisions of the Imperial House Law.
Article 3. The Emperor is sacred and inviolable.
Article 4. The Emperor is the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty, and exercises them, according to the provisions of the present Constitution.
Article 5. The Emperor exercises the legislative power with the consent of the Imperial Diet.
Article 6. The Emperor gives sanction to laws, and orders them to be promulgated and executed.
Article 7. The Emperor convokes the Imperial Diet, opens, closes and prorogues it, and dissolves the House of Representatives.
Article 11. The Emperor has the supreme command of the Army and Navy.
Article 12. The Emperor determines the organization and peace standing of the Army and Navy.
Article 13. The Emperor declares war, makes peace, and concludes treaties.
Article 14. The Emperor declares a state of siege.
Article 15. The Emperor confers titles of nobility, rank, orders and other marks of honor.
Article 16. The Emperor orders amnesty, pardon, commutation of punishments and rehabilitation.
Article 17. A Regency shall be instituted in conformity with the provisions of the Imperial House Law.
The process of modernization was closely monitored and heavily subsidized by the Meiji government in close connection with a powerful clique of companies known as zaibatsu (e.g.:
Mitsubishi). Borrowing and adapting technology from the West, Japan gradually took control of much of Asia's market for manufactured goods, beginning with
textiles. The economic structure became very
mercantilistic, importing raw materials and exporting finished products — a reflection of Japan's relative scarcity of raw materials.
Economic reforms included a unified modern currency based on the
yen, banking, commercial and tax laws, stock exchanges, and a communications network. The government was initially involved in economic modernization, providing a number of "model factories" to facilitate the transition to the modern period. The transition took time. By the 1890s, however, the Meiji had successfully established a modern institutional framework that would transform Japan into an advanced capitalist economy. By this time, the government had largely relinquished direct control of the modernization process, primarily for budgetary reasons. Many of the former daimyōs, whose pensions had been paid in a lump sum, benefited greatly through investments they made in emerging industries.
Japan emerged from the Tokugawa-Meiji transition as an industrialized nation. From the onset, the Meiji rulers embraced the concept of a market economy and adopted British and North American forms of free enterprise capitalism. Rapid growth and structural change characterized Japan's two periods of economic development after 1868. Initially, the economy grew only moderately and relied heavily on traditional Japanese agriculture to finance modern industrial infrastructure. By the time the
Russo-Japanese War began in 1904, 65% of employment and 38% of the
gross domestic product (GDP) were still based on agriculture, but modern industry had begun to expand substantially. By the late 1920s, manufacturing and mining amounted to 34% of GDP, compared with 20% for all of agriculture. Transportation and communications developed to sustain heavy industrial development.
From 1894, Japan built an extensive empire that included
Manchuria, and parts of
northern China. The Japanese regarded this
sphere of influence as a political and economic necessity, which prevented foreign states from strangling Japan by blocking its access to raw materials and crucial sea-lanes. Japan's large military force was regarded as essential to the empire's defense and prosperity by obtaining natural resources that the Japanese islands lacked.
First Sino-Japanese War, fought in 1894 and 1895, revolved around the issue of control and influence over Korea under the rule of the
Joseon Dynasty. Korea had traditionally been a
tributary state of China's
Qing Empire, which exerted large influence over the conservative Korean officials who gathered around the royal family of the
Joseon kingdom. On February 27, 1876, after several confrontations between Korean isolationists and the Japanese, Japan imposed the
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, forcing Korea open to Japanese trade. The act blocks any other power from dominating Korea, resolving to end the centuries-old Chinese
On June 4, 1894, Korea requested aid from the Qing Empire in suppressing the
Donghak Rebellion. The Qing government sent 2,800 troops to Korea. The Japanese countered by sending an 8,000-troop expeditionary force (the Oshima Composite Brigade) to Korea. The first 400 troops arrived on June 9 en route to
Seoul, and 3,000 landed at
Incheon on June 12. The Qing government turned down Japan's suggestion for Japan and China to cooperate to reform the Korean government. When Korea demanded that Japan withdraw its troops from Korea, the Japanese refused. In early June 1894, the 8,000 Japanese troops captured the Korean king Gojong, occupied the
Royal Palace in
Seoul and, by June 25, installed a puppet government in Seoul. The new pro-Japanese Korean government granted Japan the right to expel Qing forces while Japan dispatched more troops to Korea.
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the
Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
In 1900, Japan joined an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in the Qing Empire of China. Japan provided the largest contingent of troops: 20,840, as well as 18 warships. Of the total, 20,300 were Imperial Japanese Army troops of the
5th Infantry Division under Lt. General Yamaguchi Motoomi; the remainder were 540 naval rikusentai (marines) from the
Imperial Japanese Navy.
At the beginning of the Boxer Rebellion the Japanese only had 215 troops in northern China stationed at Tientsin; nearly all of them were naval rikusentai from the
Kasagi and the
Atago, under the command of Captain
Shimamura Hayao. The Japanese were able to contribute 52 men to the
Seymour Expedition. On June 12, 1900, the advance of the Seymour Expedition was halted some 50 kilometres (30 mi) from the capital, by mixed Boxer and Chinese regular army forces. The vastly outnumbered allies withdrew to the vicinity of
Tianjin, having suffered more than 300 casualties. The
army general staff in Tokyo had become aware of the worsening conditions in China and had drafted ambitious contingency plans, but in the wake of the
Triple Intervention five years before, the government refused to deploy large numbers of troops unless requested by the western powers. However three days later, a provisional force of 1,300 troops commanded by Major General
Fukushima Yasumasa was to be deployed to northern China. Fukushima was chosen because he spoke fluent English which enabled him to communicate with the British commander. The force landed near Tianjin on July 5.
Komura Jutaro. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the
Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
On June 17, 1900, naval Rikusentai from the Kasagi and Atago had joined British, Russian, and German sailors to seize the
Dagu forts near Tianjin. In light of the precarious situation, the British were compelled to ask Japan for additional reinforcements, as the Japanese had the only readily available forces in the region. Britain at the time was heavily engaged in the
Boer War, so a large part of the British army was tied down in South Africa. Further, deploying large numbers of troops from its
garrisons in India would take too much time and weaken internal security there. Overriding personal doubts, Foreign Minister
Aoki Shūzō calculated that the advantages of participating in an allied coalition were too attractive to ignore. Prime Minister Yamagata agreed, but others in the cabinet demanded that there be guarantees from the British in return for the risks and costs of the major deployment of Japanese troops. On July 6, 1900, the
5th Infantry Division was alerted for possible deployment to China, but no timetable was set for this. Two days later, with more ground troops urgently needed to lift the siege of the foreign legations at Peking, the British ambassador offered the Japanese government one million British pounds in exchange for Japanese participation.
Shortly afterward, advance units of the 5th Division departed for China, bringing Japanese strength to 3,800 personnel out of the 17,000 of allied forces. The commander of the 5th Division, Lt. General Yamaguchi Motoomi, had taken operational control from Fukushima. Japanese troops were involved in the
storming of Tianjin on July 14, after which the allies consolidated and awaited the remainder of the 5th Division and other coalition reinforcements. By the time the siege of legations was lifted on August 14, 1900, the Japanese force of 13,000 was the largest single contingent and made up about 40% of the approximately 33,000 strong allied expeditionary force. Japanese troops involved in the fighting had acquitted themselves well, although a British military observer felt their aggressiveness, densely-packed formations, and over-willingness to attack cost them excessive and disproportionate casualties. For example, during the Tianjin fighting, the Japanese suffered more than half of the allied casualties (400 out of 730) but comprised less than one quarter (3,800) of the force of 17,000. Similarly at Beijing, the Japanese accounted for almost two-thirds of the losses (280 of 453) even though they constituted slightly less than half of the assault force.
After the uprising, Japan and the Western countries signed the
Boxer Protocol with China, which permitted them to station troops on Chinese soil to protect their citizens. After the treaty, Russia continued to occupy all of
Russo-Japanese War was a conflict for control of Korea and parts of Manchuria between the
Russian Empire and Empire of Japan that took place from 1904 to 1905. The victory greatly raised Japan's stature in the world of global politics. The war is marked by the Japanese opposition of Russian interests in Korea, Manchuria, and China, notably, the Liaodong Peninsula, controlled by the city of
Originally, in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, Ryojun had been given to Japan. This part of the treaty was overruled by Western powers, which gave the port to the Russian Empire, furthering Russian interests in the region. These interests came into conflict with Japanese interests. The war began with a surprise attack on the Russian Eastern fleet stationed at Port Arthur, which was followed by the
Battle of Port Arthur. Those elements that attempted escape were defeated by the Japanese navy under Admiral Togo Heihachiro at the
Battle of the Yellow Sea. Following a late start, the Russian Baltic fleet was denied passage through the British-controlled
Suez Canal. The fleet arrived on the scene a year later, only to be annihilated in the
Battle of Tsushima. While the ground war did not fare as poorly for the Russians, the Japanese forces were significantly more aggressive than their Russian counterparts and gained a political advantage that culminated with the
Treaty of Portsmouth, negotiated in the United States by the
American presidentTheodore Roosevelt. As a result, Russia lost the part of
Sakhalin Island south of
50 degrees North latitude (which became
Karafuto Prefecture), as well as many mineral rights in Manchuria. In addition, Russia's defeat cleared the way for Japan to
annex Korea outright in 1910.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, various Western countries actively competed for influence, trade, and territory in
East Asia, and Japan sought to join these modern colonial powers. The newly modernised
Meiji government of Japan turned to Korea (under
Joseon dynasty), then in the
sphere of influence of China's
Qing dynasty. The Japanese government initially sought to separate Korea from Qing and make Korea a
Japanese satellite in order to further their security and national interests.
In Korea, the period is usually described as the "Time of Japanese Forced Occupation" (
Hangul: 일제 강점기; Ilje gangjeomgi,
Hanja: 日帝强占期). Other terms include "Japanese Imperial Period" (
Hangul: 일제시대, Ilje sidae,
Hanja: 日帝時代) or "Japanese administration" (
Hangul: 왜정, Wae jeong, Hanja: 倭政). In Japan, a more common description is "The Korea of Japanese rule" (日本統治時代の朝鮮, Nippon Tōchi-jidai no Chōsen). The
Korean Peninsula was officially part of the Empire of Japan for 35 years, from August 29, 1910, until the formal Japanese rule ended, de jure, on September 2, 1945, upon the
surrender of Japan in
World War II. The 1905 and 1910 treaties were eventually declared "null and void" by both Japan and South Korea in 1965.
With its Western allies, notably the United Kingdom, heavily involved in the war in Europe, Japan
dispatched a Naval fleet to the
Mediterranean Sea to aid Allied shipping. Japan sought further to consolidate its position in China by presenting the
Twenty-One Demands to China in January 1915. In the face of slow negotiations with the Chinese government, widespread
anti-Japanese sentiment in China, and international condemnation, Japan withdrew the final group of demands, and treaties were signed in May 1915. The
Anglo-Japanese Alliance was renewed and expanded in scope twice, in 1905 and 1911, before its demise in 1921. It was officially terminated in 1923.
In July 1918, President Wilson asked the Japanese government to supply 7,000 troops as part of an international coalition of 25,000 troops planned to support the
American Expeditionary Force Siberia. Prime Minister
Terauchi Masatake agreed to send 12,000 troops but under the Japanese command rather than as part of an international coalition. The Japanese had several hidden motives for the venture, which included an intense hostility and fear of communism; a determination to recoup historical losses to Russia; and the desire to settle the "northern problem" in Japan's security, either through the creation of a buffer state or through outright territorial acquisition.
In June 1920, around 450 Japanese civilians and 350 Japanese soldiers, along with Russian White Army supporters, were massacred by partisan forces associated with the
Red Army at
Nikolayevsk on the Amur River; the United States and its allied coalition partners consequently withdrew from Vladivostok after the capture and execution of White Army leader Admiral
Aleksandr Kolchak by the Red Army. However, the Japanese decided to stay, primarily due to fears of the spread of Communism so close to Japan and Japanese-controlled Korea and Manchuria. The Japanese army provided military support to the Japanese-backed
Provisional Priamurye Government based in Vladivostok against the Moscow-backed
Far Eastern Republic.
The continued Japanese presence concerned the United States, which suspected that Japan had territorial designs on Siberia and the Russian Far East. Subjected to intense diplomatic pressure by the United States and United Kingdom, and facing increasing domestic opposition due to the economic and human cost, the administration of Prime Minister
Katō Tomosaburō withdrew the Japanese forces in October 1922. Japanese casualties from the expedition were 5,000 dead from combat or illness, with the expedition costing over 900 million yen.
Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
The two-party political system that had been developing in Japan since the turn of the century came of age after World War I, giving rise to the nickname for the period, "
Taishō Democracy". The public grew disillusioned with the growing national debt and the new election laws, which retained the old minimum tax qualifications for voters. Calls were raised for universal suffrage and the dismantling of the old political party network. Students, university professors, and journalists, bolstered by labor unions and inspired by a variety of democratic, socialist, communist, anarchist, and other thoughts, mounted large but orderly public demonstrations in favor of universal male suffrage in 1919 and 1920.
The election of
Katō Komei as Prime Minister of Japan continued democratic reforms that had been advocated by influential individuals on the left. This culminated in the passage of universal male suffrage in March 1925. This bill gave all male subjects over the age of 25 the right to vote, provided they had lived in their electoral districts for at least one year and were not homeless. The electorate thereby increased from 3.3 million to 12.5 million.
In the political milieu of the day, there was a proliferation of new parties, including socialist and communist parties. Fear of a broader electorate, left-wing power, and the growing social change led to the passage of the
Peace Preservation Law in 1925, which forbade any change in the political structure or the abolition of private property.
Unstable coalitions and divisiveness in the Diet led the
Kenseikai (憲政会Constitutional Government Association) and the Seiyū Hontō (政友本党True Seiyūkai) to merge as the
Rikken Minseitō (立憲民政党Constitutional Democratic Party) in 1927. The
Rikken Minseitō platform was committed to the parliamentary system, democratic politics, and world peace. Thereafter, until 1932, the
Seiyūkai and the Rikken Minseitō alternated in power.
Despite the political realignments and hope for more orderly government, domestic economic crises plagued whichever party held power. Fiscal austerity programs and appeals for public support of such conservative government policies as the Peace Preservation Law—including reminders of the moral obligation to make sacrifices for the emperor and the state—were attempted as solutions.
Sadao Araki was an important figurehead and founder of the Army party and the most important militarist thinker in his time. His first ideological works date from his leadership of the
Kōdōha (Imperial Benevolent Rule or Action Group), opposed by the
Tōseiha (Control Group) led by General
Kazushige Ugaki. He linked the ancient (bushido code) and contemporary local and European fascist ideals (see
Statism in Shōwa Japan), to form the ideological basis of the movement (
From September 1931, the Japanese were becoming more locked into the course that would lead them into the Second World War, with Araki leading the way.
expansionism were to become the rule, with fewer voices able to speak against it. In a September 23 news conference, Araki first mentioned the philosophy of "Kōdōha" (The
Imperial Way Faction). The concept of Kodo linked the Emperor, the people, land, and morality as indivisible. This led to the creation of a "new"
Shinto and increased
On February 26, 1936, a coup d'état was attempted (the
February 26 Incident). Launched by the ultranationalist Kōdōha faction with the military, it ultimately failed due to the intervention of the Emperor. Kōdōha members were purged from the top military positions and the
Tōseiha faction gained dominance. However, both factions believed in expansionism, a strong military, and a coming war. Furthermore, Kōdōha members, while removed from the military, still had political influence within the government.
The state was being transformed to serve the Army and the Emperor. Symbolic
katana swords came back into fashion as the martial embodiment of these beliefs, and the
Nambu pistol became its contemporary equivalent, with the implicit message that the Army doctrine of close combat would prevail. The final objective, as envisioned by Army thinkers such as
Sadao Araki and right-wing line followers, was a return to the old
Shogunate system, but in the form of a contemporary Military Shogunate. In such a government the Emperor would once more be a figurehead (as in the
Edo period). Real power would fall to a leader very similar to a führer or duce, though with the power less nakedly held. On the other hand, the traditionalist Navy militarists defended the Emperor and a constitutional monarchy with a significant religious aspect.
A third point of view was supported by
Prince Chichibu, a brother of
Emperor Shōwa, who repeatedly counseled him to implement a direct imperial rule, even if that meant suspending the constitution.
In the early twentieth century, a distinctive style of architecture was developed for the empire. Now referred to as
Imperial Crown Style (帝冠様式, teikan yōshiki), before the end of World War II, it was originally referred to as Emperor's Crown Amalgamate Style, and sometimes Emperor's Crown Style (帝冠式, Teikanshiki). The style is identified by Japanese-style roofing on top of
Neoclassical styled buildings; and can have a centrally elevated structure with a pyramidal dome. The prototype for this style was developed by architect
Shimoda Kikutaro in his proposal for the Imperial Diet Building (present National Diet Building) in 1920 – although his proposal was ultimately rejected. Outside of the Japanese mainland, in places like
Korea, Imperial Crown Style architecture often included regional architectural elements.
Overall, during the 1920s, Japan changed its direction toward a democratic system of government. However,
parliamentary government was not rooted deeply enough to withstand the economic and political pressures of the 1930s, during which military leaders became increasingly influential. These shifts in power were made possible by the ambiguity and imprecision of the
Meiji Constitution, particularly as regarded the position of the Emperor in relation to the constitution.
During the 1920s, the whole global economy was dubbed as "a decade of global uncertainty". At the same time, the zaibatsu trading groups (principally
Yasuda) looked towards great future expansion. Their main concern was a shortage of raw materials. Prime Minister
Fumimaro Konoe combined social concerns with the needs of capital, and planned for expansion. Their economic growth was stimulated by certain domestic policies and it can be seen in the steady and progressive increase of materials such as in the iron, steel and chemical industry.
The main goals of Japan's expansionism were acquisition and protection of spheres of influence, maintenance of territorial integrity, acquisition of raw materials, and access to Asian markets. Western nations, notably the United Kingdom, France, and the United States, had for long exhibited great interest in the commercial opportunities in China and other parts of Asia. These opportunities had attracted Western investment because of the availability of raw materials for both domestic production and re-export to Asia. Japan desired these opportunities in planning the development of the
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
Great Depression, just as in many other countries, hindered Japan's economic growth. The Japanese Empire's main problem lay in that rapid industrial expansion had turned the country into a major manufacturing and industrial power that required raw materials; however, these had to be obtained from overseas, as there was a critical lack of natural resources on the home islands.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Japan needed to import raw materials such as iron, rubber, and oil to maintain strong economic growth. Most of these resources came from the United States. The Japanese felt that acquiring resource-rich territories would establish economic self-sufficiency and independence, and they also hoped to jump-start the nation's economy in the midst of the depression. As a result, Japan set its sights on
East Asia, specifically
Manchuria with its many resources; Japan needed these resources to continue its economic development and maintain national integrity.
In 1931, Japan invaded and conquered Northeast China (
Manchuria) with little resistance. Japan claimed that this invasion was a liberation of the local
Manchus from the Chinese, although the majority of the population were
Han Chinese as a result of the
large scale settlement of Chinese in Manchuria in the 19th century. Japan then established a
puppet state called
Chinese: 滿洲國), and installed the last
Manchu Emperor of China,
Puyi, as the official
head of state.
Rehe, a Chinese territory bordering Manchukuo, was later also taken in 1933. This puppet regime had to carry on a protracted pacification campaign against the
Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies in Manchuria. In 1936, Japan created a similar Mongolian puppet state in Inner Mongolia named
Chinese: 蒙疆), which was also predominantly Chinese as a result of recent Han immigration to the area. At that time, East Asians were banned from immigration to
North America and
Australia, but the newly established Manchukuo was open to immigration of Asians. Japan had an emigration plan to encourage colonization; the Japanese population in Manchuria subsequently grew to 850,000. With rich natural resources and labor force in Manchuria, army-owned corporations turned Manchuria into a solid material support machine of the Japanese Army.
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (
Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through
Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the
Japan invaded China proper in 1937, beginning a war against both
Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists and also the Communists of
united front. On December 13 of that same year, the Nationalist capital of
Nanjingsurrendered to Japanese troops. In the event known as the "
Nanjing Massacre", Japanese troops killed many tens-of-thousands of people associated with the defending garrison. It is estimated that as many as 200,000 to 300,000 including civilians, may have been killed, although the actual numbers are uncertain and possibly inflated—coupled with the fact that the government of the
People's Republic of China has never undertaken a full accounting of the massacre. In total, an estimated 20 million Chinese, mostly civilians, were killed during World War II.
A puppet state was also set up in China quickly afterwards, headed by
Wang Jingwei. The Second Sino-Japanese War continued into World War II with the Communists and Nationalists in
a temporary and uneasy nominal alliance against the Japanese.
In 1938, the Japanese 19th Division entered territory claimed by the Soviet Union, leading to the
Battle of Lake Khasan. This incursion was founded in the Japanese belief that the Soviet Union misinterpreted the demarcation of the boundary, as stipulated in the
Treaty of Peking, between Imperial Russia and Manchu China (and subsequent supplementary agreements on demarcation), and furthermore, that the demarcation markers were tampered with.
On May 11, 1939, in the Nomonhan Incident (
Battle of Khalkhin Gol), a Mongolian cavalry unit of some 70 to 90 men entered the disputed area in search of grazing for their horses, and encountered Manchukuoan cavalry, who drove them out. Two days later the Mongolian force returned and the Manchukoans were unable to evict them.
IJA 23rd Division and other units of the
Kwantung Army then became involved.
Joseph Stalin ordered
Red Army's high command, to develop a plan for a counterstrike against the Japanese. In late August,
Georgy Zhukov employed encircling tactics that made skillful use of superior artillery, armor, and air forces; this offensive nearly annihilated the 23rd Division and decimated the
IJA 7th Division. On September 15 an armistice was arranged. Nearly two years later, on April 13, 1941, the parties signed a
Neutrality Pact, in which the Soviet Union pledged to respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of
Manchukuo, while Japan agreed similarly for the
Mongolian People's Republic.
Second Sino-Japanese War had seen tensions rise between Imperial Japan and the United States; events such as the
Panay incident and the
Nanjing Massacre turned American public opinion against Japan. With the occupation of
French Indochina in the years of 1940–41, and with the continuing war in China, the United States and its allies placed embargoes on Japan of
strategic materials such as scrap metal and oil, which were vitally needed for the war effort. The Japanese were faced with the option of either withdrawing from China and losing face or seizing and securing new sources of raw materials in the resource-rich, European-controlled colonies of
British Malaya and the
Dutch East Indies (modern-day
On September 27, 1940, Japan signed the
Tripartite Pact with
Italy. Their objectives were to "establish and maintain a new order of things" in their respective world regions and spheres of influence, with Germany and Italy in Europe, and Japan in Asia. The signatories of this
alliance became known as the
Axis Powers. The pact also called for mutual protection—if any one of the member powers was attacked by a country not already at war, excluding the
Soviet Union and for technological and economic cooperation between the signatories.
For the sake of their own people and nation, Prime Minister Konoe formed the Taisei Yokusankai (
Imperial Rule Assistance Association) on October 12, 1940, as a ruling party in Japan.
Founding ceremony of the hakkō ichiu monument on April 3, 1940. It had
Prince Chichibu's calligraphy of hakkō ichiu carved on its front side.
Prewar 10-sen Japanese stamp, illustrating the hakkō ichiu and the 2600th anniversary of the empire
Emperor Shōwa and
Empress Kōjun presiding over the celebration of the 2600th anniversary of mythical foundation of the Japanese Empire in November 1940
Japanese pilots gathering under the flag of hakkō ichiu during the
In 1940 Japan
celebrated the 2600th anniversary of Jimmu's ascension and built a monument to
Hakkō ichiu despite the fact that all historians knew Jimmu was a made up figure. In 1941 the Japanese government charged the one historian who dared to challenge Jimmu's existence publicly, Tsuda Sokichi. During the
Second Sino-Japanese War and the
Second World War, the firm
Iwanami Shoten was repeatedly censored because of its positions against the war and the Emperor. Shigeo Iwanami was even sentenced to two months in prison for the publication of the banned works of Tsuda Sōkichi (a sentence which he did not serve, however). Shortly before his death in 1946, he founded the newspaper Sekai, which had a great influence in post-war Japanese intellectual circles. The early 20th century historian
Tsuda Sōkichi, who put forward the then-controversial theory that the Kojiki's accounts were not based on history (as Edo period kokugaku and
State Shinto ideology believed them to be) but rather propagandistic myths concocted to explain and legitimize the rule of the imperial (Yamato) dynasty, also saw
Susanoo as a negative figure, arguing that he was created to serve as the rebellious opposite of the imperial ancestress Amaterasu. A
historian in 20th century,
Sokichi Tsuda's view of history, which has become mainstream after the World War II, is based on his idea. Many scholars today also believe that the mythology of
Takamagahara in Kojiki was created by the
ruling class to make people believe that the class was precious because they originated in the heavenly realm.
Greater East Asia Conference between leaders of Japan and its puppet states from China, Manchuria, the Philippines, India, Myanmar, and Thailand in November 1943
French army personnel captured by the Japanese in
Hanoi as part of the successful
Japanese coup against the
French Indochina from 9 to 15 March 1945, which led to the establishment of three Japanese puppet states here
On November 5, 1941, Yamamoto in his "Top Secret Operation Order no. 1" issued to the Combined Fleet, the Empire of Japan must drive out Britain and America from Greater East Asia and to hasten the settlement of the China, whereas should the eventuality that Britain and America would really be driven out from the Philippines and Dutch East Indies, an independent, self-supporting economic entity will be firmly established - mirroring the principle of the
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere in another personification.
Facing an oil embargo by the United States as well as dwindling domestic reserves, the Japanese government decided to execute a plan developed by
Isoroku Yamamoto to attack the United States Pacific Fleet in Hawaii. While the United States was
neutral and continued negotiating with Japan for possible peace in Asia, the Imperial Japanese Navy at the same time made its surprise
attack on Pearl Harbor in
Honolulu on December 7, 1941. As a result, the U.S. battleship fleet was decimated and almost 2,500 people died in the attack that day. The primary objective of the attack was to incapacitate the United States long enough for Japan to establish its long-planned South East Asian empire and defensible buffer zones. The American public saw the attack as barbaric and treacherous and rallied against the Japanese. Four days later,
Adolf Hitler of Germany, and
Benito Mussolini of Italy declared war on the United States, merging the separate conflicts. The United States entered the
European Theatre and
Pacific Theater in full force, thereby bringing the United States to World War II on the side of the
Even as they launched the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese were well aware that the United States had the capability to mount a counter-offensive against them. However, they believed that they could maintain their defensive perimeter and push back any attempt by the British and Americans that could incur enough losses to make the Allied forces consider making peace on the basis of Japan's retainment of the territories she had gained.
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese launched offensives against Allied forces in East and Southeast Asia, with simultaneous attacks in
British Hong Kong,
British Malaya and the
Hong Kong surrendered to the Japanese on December 25. In
Malaya the Japanese overwhelmed an Allied army composed of British, Indian,
Malay forces. The Japanese were quickly able to advance down the
Malayan Peninsula, forcing the Allied forces to retreat towards
Singapore. The Allies lacked aircover and tanks; the Japanese had complete air superiority. The
sinking of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse on December 10, 1941, led to the east coast of Malaya being exposed to Japanese landings and the elimination of British naval power in the area. By the end of January 1942, the last Allied forces crossed the strait of Johore and into Singapore.
Victorious Japanese troops marching through the city center of
Singapore following the
city's capture in February 1942
On January 11, 1942, a Japanese submarine shelled the United States naval Station at Pago Pago in Samoa, suggesting that the Japanese were advancing to the direction of Australia and nearby Oceanic regions.
Japanese military strategists were keenly aware of the unfavorable discrepancy between the industrial potential of Japan and the United States. Because of this they reasoned that Japanese success hinged on their ability to extend the strategic advantage gained at
Pearl Harbor with additional rapid strategic victories. The Japanese Command reasoned that only decisive destruction of the United States' Pacific Fleet and conquest of its remote outposts would ensure that the Japanese Empire would not be overwhelmed by America's industrial might.
Group of Type 2
Ka-Mi tanks on board a 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
In April 1942, Japan was bombed for the first time in the
Doolittle Raid. During the same month, after the Japanese victory in the
Battle of Bataan, the
Bataan Death March was conducted, where 5,650 to 18,000 Filipinos died under the rule of the imperial army. In May 1942, failure to decisively defeat the Allies at the
Battle of the Coral Sea, in spite of Japanese numerical superiority, equated to a strategic defeat for the Japanese. This setback was followed in June 1942 by the catastrophic loss of four fleet carriers at the
Battle of Midway, the first decisive defeat for the Imperial Japanese Navy. It proved to be the turning point of the war as the Navy lost its offensive strategic capability and never managed to reconstruct the "'critical mass' of both large numbers of carriers and well-trained air groups".
Australian land forces defeated Japanese Marines in New Guinea at the
Battle of Milne Bay in September 1942, which was the first land defeat suffered by the Japanese in the Pacific. Further victories by the Allies at
Guadalcanal in September 1942 and
New Guinea in 1943 put the Empire of Japan on the defensive for the remainder of the war, with Guadalcanal in particular sapping their already-limited oil supplies. During 1943 and 1944, Allied forces, backed by the industrial might and vast raw material resources of the United States, advanced steadily towards Japan. The
Sixth United States Army, led by
General MacArthur, landed on
Leyte on October 20, 1944. The
Palawan massacre was committed by the imperial army against Filipinos in December 1944. In the subsequent months, during the
Philippines campaign (1944–45), the Allies, including the combined United States forces together with the native guerrilla units, recaptured the Philippines.
By 1944, the Allies had seized or bypassed and neutralized many of Japan's strategic bases through amphibious landings and bombardment. This, coupled with the losses inflicted by
Allied submarines on Japanese shipping routes, began to strangle Japan's economy and undermine its ability to supply its army. By early 1945, the US Marines had wrested control of the
Ogasawara Islands in several hard-fought battles such as the
Battle of Iwo Jima, marking the beginning of the fall of the islands of Japan. After securing airfields in
Guam in the summer of 1944, the
United States Army Air Forces conducted an intense
strategic bombing campaign by having
B-29 Superfortress bombers in nighttime low altitude incendiary raids, burning Japanese cities in an effort to pulverize Japan's war industry and
shatter its morale. The
Operation Meetinghouse raid on Tokyo on the night of March 9–10, 1945, led to the deaths of approximately 120,000 civilians. Approximately 350,000–500,000 civilians died in 67 Japanese cities as a result of the
incendiary bombing campaign on Japan. Concurrent with these attacks, Japan's vital coastal shipping operations were severely hampered with extensive aerial mining by the US's
Operation Starvation. Regardless, these efforts did not succeed in persuading the Japanese military to surrender. In mid-August 1945, the United States dropped
nuclear weapons on the Japanese cities of
Nagasaki. These bombings were the first and only combat use of nuclear weaponry. These two bombs killed approximately 120,000 people in a matter of seconds, and as many as a result of
nuclear radiation in the following weeks, months and years. The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945.
Yalta agreement, the US, the UK, and the USSR had agreed that the USSR would enter the war on Japan within three months of the defeat of Germany in Europe. This
Soviet–Japanese War led to the fall of Japan's Manchurian occupation, Soviet occupation of
South Sakhalin island, and a real, imminent threat of Soviet invasion of the home islands of Japan. This was a significant factor for some internal parties in the Japanese decision to surrender to the US and gain some protection, rather than face simultaneous Soviet invasion as well as defeat by the US and its allies. Likewise, the
superior numbers of the armies of the Soviet Union in Europe was a factor in the US decision to demonstrate the use of atomic weapons to the USSR, just as the Allied victory in Europe was evolving into the
division of Germany and Berlin, the division of Europe with the
Iron Curtain and the subsequent
A period known as
occupied Japan followed after the war, largely spearheaded by US Army General Douglas MacArthur to revise the Japanese constitution and de-militarize the nation. The Allied occupation, including concurrent economic and political assistance, continued until 1952. Allied forces ordered Japan to abolish the
Meiji Constitution and enforce the 1947
Constitution of Japan. This new constitution was imposed by the United States under the supervision of MacArthur. MacArthur included
Article 9 which changed Japan into a
Japan adopted a parliamentary-based political system, and the role of the Emperor became symbolic. The
US occupation forces were fully responsible for protecting Japan from external threats. Japan only had a minor police force for domestic security. Japan was under the sole control of the United States. This was the only time in
Japanese history that it was occupied by a foreign power.
General MacArthur later commended the new Japanese government that he helped establish and the new Japanese period when he was about to send the American forces to the
The Japanese people, since the war, have undergone the greatest reformation recorded in modern history. With a commendable will, eagerness to learn, and marked capacity to understand, they have, from the ashes left in war's wake, erected in Japan an edifice dedicated to the supremacy of individual liberty and personal dignity; and in the ensuing process there has been created a truly representative government committed to the advance of political morality, freedom of economic enterprise, and social justice. Politically, economically, and socially Japan is now abreast of many free nations of the earth and will not again fail the universal trust. ... I sent all four of our occupation divisions to the Korean battlefront without the slightest qualms as to the effect of the resulting power vacuum upon Japan. The results fully justified my faith. I know of no nation more serene, orderly, and industrious, nor in which higher hopes can be entertained for future constructive service in the advance of the human race.
In retrospect, apart from the military officer corps, the purge of alleged militarists and ultranationalists that was conducted under the Occupation had relatively small impact on the long-term composition of men of influence in the public and private sectors. The purge initially brought new blood into the political parties, but this was offset by the return of huge numbers of formerly purged conservative politicians to national as well as local politics in the early 1950s. In the bureaucracy, the purge was negligible from the outset. ... In the economic sector, the purge similarly was only mildly disruptive, affecting less than sixteen hundred individuals spread among some four hundred companies. Everywhere one looks, the corridors of power in postwar Japan are crowded with men whose talents had already been recognized during the war years, and who found the same talents highly prized in the 'new' Japan.
In the administration of Japan dominated by the military political movement during
World War II, the civil central government was under the management of military men and their right-wing civilian allies, along with members of the nobility and
Imperial Family. The Emperor was in the center of this power structure as supreme
Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Armed Forces and
head of state.
1 Each posthumous name was given after the respective era names as
Qing Dynasties of China.
2 The Japanese imperial family name has no surname or dynastic name.
3 The Meiji Emperor was known only by the appellation Sachi-no-miya from his birth until November 11, 1860, when he was proclaimed heir apparent to
Emperor Kōmei and received the personal name Mutsuhito.
4 No multiple era names were given for each reign after Emperor Meiji.
6 Constitutionally. The reign of the Shōwa Emperor in fact continued until 1989 since he did not abdicate after World War II. However, he lost his status as a living god and influence on politics after the 1947 constitution was adopted.
^From 1943 to 1945, Karafuto was part of the naichi
^From 1943 to 1945,
Karafuto was part of the naichi
^Although the Empire of Japan officially had no state religion,Shinto played an important part for the Japanese state.
Marius Jansen states: "The Meiji government had from the first incorporated, and in a sense created, Shinto, and utilized its tales of the divine origin of the ruling house as the core of its ritual addressed to ancestors 'of ages past'. As the Japanese empire grew the affirmation of a divine mission for the Japanese race was emphasized more strongly. Shinto was imposed on colonial lands in Taiwan and Korea, and public funds were utilized to build and maintain new shrines there. Shinto priests were attached to army units as chaplains, and the cult of war dead, enshrined at the
Yasukuni Jinja in Tokyo, took on ever greater proportions as their number grew."
^De facto, including Japanese puppet state
Manchukuo and not official.
^De facto, including Japanese occupation territories and not official.
^De facto, including population in Japanese occupation territories and not official.
^"During the second half of the nineteenth century, Japan's nation-builders forged the
Meiji nation-state out of an older, heterogeneous
Tokugawa realm, integrating semi-autonomous domain states into a unified political community." "Rather than restore an ancient (and probably imaginary) center-periphery order, the Meiji Restoration hastened the creation of a new and unambiguously centralized and modern nation-state. Within a few decades of the official beginning of the nation-building project, Tokyo had become the political and economic capital of a state that replaced semi-autonomous domains with newly created prefectures subordinate to central laws and centrally appointed administrators."
^富国強兵, "Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Armed Forces"
^Joseph K. Yamagiwa (September 1955). "Literature and Politics in the Japanese Magazine, Sekai". Public Affairs. 28 (3): 254–268.
^Gadeleva, Emilia (2000). "Susanoo: One of the Central Gods in Japanese Mythology". Nichibunken Japan Review: Bulletin of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies. International Research Center for Japanese Studies. 12: 166–7.
Ion, Hamish (2014). "The Idea of Naval Imperialism: The China Squadron and the Boxer Uprising". British Naval Strategy East of Suez, 1900–2000: Influences and Actions. Routledge.