Whey protein concentrates and isolates, reduced lactose whey
Hydrolysates, milk treated with proteolytic enzymes to alter functionality
Mineral concentrates, byproduct of demineralizing whey
Consumption patterns worldwide
Rates of dairy consumption vary widely worldwide. High-consumption countries consume more than 150 kilograms (330 lb)
per capita per year. These countries are: Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Costa Rica, most European countries, Israel, Kyrgyzstan, North America and Pakistan. Medium-consumption countries consume 30 kilograms (66 lb) to 150 kg per capita per year. These countries are: India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Mongolia, New Zealand, North and Southern Africa, most of the Middle East, and most of Latin America and the Caribbean. Low-consumption countries consume under 30 kg per capita per year. These countries are: Senegal, most of Central Africa, and most of East and Southeast Asia.
For those with some degree of
lactose intolerance, considering the amount of
lactose in dairy products can be important to health.
It has been suggested that consumption of
insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in dairy products could increase cancer risk, particularly prostate cancer. However, a 2018 review by the Committee on Carcinogenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COC) concluded that there is "insufficient evidence to draw any firm conclusions as to whether exposure to dietary IGF-1 is associated with an increased incidence of cancer in consumers". The COC also stated it is unlikely that there would be absorption of intact IGF-1 from food by most consumers.
A 2019 review concluded that higher-quality research was needed to characterise valid associations between dairy consumption and risk of and/or cancer-related mortality. A 2021
umbrella review found strong evidence that consumption of dairy products decreases risk of colorectal cancer.Fermented dairy is associated with significantly decreased bladder cancer and colorectal cancer risk.
A 2023 review found no association between consumption of dairy products and
American Medical Association (AMA) recommends that people replace full-fat dairy products with nonfat and low-fat dairy products. In 2017, the AMA stated that there is no
high-quality clinical evidence that cheese consumption lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease. In 2021, they stated that "taken together, replacing full-fat dairy products with nonfat and low-fat dairy products and other sources of unsaturated fat shifts the composition of dietary patterns toward higher unsaturated to saturated fat ratios that are associated with better cardiovascular health".
In 2017, the
National Heart Foundation of New Zealand published an
umbrella review which found an "overall neutral effect of dairy on cardiovascular risk for the general population". Their position paper stated that "the evidence overall suggests dairy products can be included in a heart-healthy eating pattern and choosing reduced-fat dairy over full-fat dairy reduces risk for some, but not all, cardiovascular risk factors".
In 2019 the
National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on full fat dairy products, "Based on current evidence, there is not enough evidence to recommend full fat over reduced fat products or reduced fat over full fat products for the general population. For people with elevated cholesterol and those with existing coronary heart disease, reduced fat products are recommended." The position statement also noted that the "evidence for milk, yoghurt and cheese does not extend to butter, cream, ice-cream and dairy-based desserts; these products should be avoided in a heart healthy eating pattern".
Recent reviews of
randomized controlled trials have found that dairy intake from cheese, milk and yogurt does not have detrimental effects on markers of cardiometabolic health.
Consumption of dairy products such as low-fat and whole milk have been associated with an increased
acne risk, however, as of 2022 there is no conclusive evidence. Fermented and low-fat dairy products are associated with a decreased risk of
diabetes. Consumption of dairy products are also associated with a decreased risk of
Some groups avoid dairy products for non-health-related reasons. Some religions restrict or do not allow the consumption of dairy products. For example, some scholars of
Jainism advocate not consuming any dairy products because dairy is perceived to involve violence against cows. Orthodox
Judaism requires that meat and dairy products not be served at the same meal, served or cooked in the same utensils, or stored together, as prescribed in Deuteronomy 14:21.
Veganism is the avoidance of all animal products, including dairy products, most often due to the ethics regarding how dairy products are produced. The
ethical reasons for avoiding meat and dairy products include how dairy is produced, how the animals are handled, and the environmental effect of dairy production. According to a report of the United Nations'
Food and Agriculture Organization in 2010 the dairy sector accounted for 4 percent of global human-made greenhouse gas emissions.
^Wiley, K.L. (2004).
Historical Dictionary of Jainism. Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series. Scarecrow Press. p. 78.
ISBN978-0-8108-6558-7. Retrieved 15 April 2019. In recent times, out of concern for the treatment of cows in commercial dairy farming, some Jains in the diaspora and in India now observe a vegan diet and discourage the use of dairy products in temple rituals.