This is a good article. Click here for more information.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Columbia, Missouri
City of Columbia
Jesse Hall and the Columns at the University of Missouri
Columbia, Missouri downtown and Missouri United Methodist Church
State Historical Society of Missouri
The Bug Bur Oak Tree in the Missouri River bottoms
Memorial Student Union at the University of Missouri
Ragtag Cinema home of the True/False film festival
The Boone County Courthouse
City flag
City seal
"The Athens of Missouri", [1] or CoMo [2]
Interactive map of Columbia
Columbia is located in Missouri
Location within Missouri
Columbia is located in the United States
Location within the contiguous U.S.
Coordinates: 38°57′07″N 92°19′44″W / 38.952°N 92.329°W / 38.952; -92.329
Columbia,_Missouri Latitude and Longitude:

38°57′07″N 92°19′44″W / 38.952°N 92.329°W / 38.952; -92.329
Country  United States
State  Missouri
County Boone
Founded1821; 202 years ago (1821)
Named for Columbia (personification)
 • Type Council-Manager
 • Body Columbia City Council
 • Mayor Barbara Buffaloe [3]
 •  City managerDe'Carlon Seewood
 • Total67.45 sq mi (174.70 km2)
 • Land67.17 sq mi (173.98 km2)
 • Water0.28 sq mi (0.72 km2)
758 ft (231 m)
 ( 2020)
 • Total126,254
 • RankUS: 227th
MO: 4th
 • Density1,879.48/sq mi (725.67/km2)
 •  MSA (2019)
208,173 ( 216th)
 •  CSA (2019)
258,309 [5] ( 119th)
Time zone UTC−6 ( CST)
 • Summer ( DST) UTC−5 ( CDT)
ZIP Codes
65201, 65202, 65203, 65211
Area code 573
FIPS code29-15670
GNIS feature ID0716133 [6]
U.S. Routes US 63.svg US 40.svg
Public transit Go COMO
Interstates I-70 (MO).svg
Airports Columbia Regional Airport
[7] [8]

Columbia /kəˈlʌmbiə/ is a city in the U.S. state of Missouri. It is the county seat of Boone County and home to the University of Missouri. [9] Founded in 1821, it is the principal city of the five-county Columbia metropolitan area. It is Missouri's fourth most-populous and fastest growing city, with an estimated 126,254 residents in 2020. [10] [11] [12]

As a Midwestern college town, Columbia has a reputation for progressive politics, persuasive journalism, and public art. [13] The tripartite establishment of Stephens College (1833), the University of Missouri (1839), and Columbia College (1851), which surround the city's Downtown to the east, south, and north, has made the city a center of learning. At its center is 8th Street (also known as the Avenue of the Columns), which connects Francis Quadrangle and Jesse Hall to the Boone County Courthouse and the City Hall. Originally an agricultural town, education is now Columbia's primary economic concern, with secondary interests in the healthcare, insurance, and technology sectors; it has never been a manufacturing center. Companies like Shelter Insurance, Carfax, Veterans United Home Loans, and Slackers CDs and Games, were founded in the city. Cultural institutions include the State Historical Society of Missouri, the Museum of Art and Archaeology, and the annual True/False Film Festival and the Roots N Blues Festival. The Missouri Tigers, the state's only major college athletic program, play football at Faurot Field and basketball at Mizzou Arena as members of the rigorous Southeastern Conference.

The city rests upon the forested hills and rolling prairies of Mid-Missouri, near the Missouri River valley, where the Ozark Mountains begin to transform into plains and savanna. Limestone forms bluffs and glades while rain dissolves the bedrock, creating caves and springs which water the Hinkson, Roche Perche, and Bonne Femme creeks. Surrounding the city, Rock Bridge Memorial State Park, Mark Twain National Forest, and Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge form a greenbelt preserving sensitive and rare environments. The Columbia Agriculture Park is home to the Columbia Farmers Market.

The first humans who entered the area at least 12,000 years ago were nomadic hunters. Later, woodland tribes lived in villages along waterways and built mounds in high places. The Osage and Missouria nations were expelled by the exploration of French traders and the rapid settlement of American pioneers. The latter arrived by the Boone's Lick Road and hailed from the culture of the Upland South, especially Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. From 1812, the Boonslick area played a pivotal role in Missouri's early history and the nation's westward expansion. German, Irish, and other European immigrants soon joined. The modern populace is unusually diverse, over 8% foreign-born. White and black people are the largest ethnicities, and people of Asian descent are the third-largest group. The city has been called the "Athens of Missouri" for its classic beauty and educational emphasis, but is more commonly called "CoMo". [2]


An aerial depiction of Columbia's downtown district in 1869. The large building on the right is University of Missouri Academic Hall.

Columbia's origins begin with the settlement of American pioneers from Kentucky and Virginia in an early 1800s region known as the Boonslick. Before 1815 settlement in the region was confined to small log forts due to the threat of Native American attack during the War of 1812. When the war ended settlers came on foot, horseback, and wagon, often moving entire households along the Boone's Lick Road and sometimes bringing enslaved African Americans. By 1818 it was clear that the increased population would necessitate a new county be created from territorial Howard County. The Moniteau Creek on the west and Cedar Creek on the east were obvious natural boundaries.

Believing it was only a matter of time before a county seat was chosen, the Smithton Land Company was formed to purchase over 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) to establish the village of Smithton (near the present-day intersection of Walnut and Garth). In 1819 Smithton was a small cluster of log cabins in an ancient forest of oak and hickory; chief among them was the cabin of Richard Gentry, a trustee of the Smithton Company who would become first mayor of Columbia. In 1820, Boone County was formed and named after the recently deceased explorer Daniel Boone. The Missouri Legislature appointed John Gray, Jefferson Fulcher, Absalom Hicks, Lawrence Bass, and David Jackson as commissioners to select and establish a permanent county seat. Smithton never had more than twenty people, and it was quickly realized that well digging was difficult because of the bedrock.

Springs were discovered across the Flat Branch Creek, so in the spring of 1821 Columbia was laid out, and the inhabitants of Smithton moved their cabins to the new town. The first house in Columbia was built by Thomas Duly in 1820 at what became Fifth and Broadway. Columbia's permanence was ensured when it was chosen as county seat in 1821 and the Boone's Lick Road was rerouted down Broadway.

The roots of Columbia's three economic foundations—education, medicine, and insurance— can be traced to the city's incorporation in 1821. [14] [15] Original plans for the town set aside land for a state university. In 1833, Columbia Baptist Female College opened, which later became Stephens College. Columbia College, distinct from today's and later to become the University of Missouri, was founded in 1839. When the state legislature decided to establish a state university, Columbia raised three times as much money as any competing city, [16] and James S. Rollins donated the land that is today the Francis Quadrangle. [16] Soon other educational institutions were founded in Columbia, such as Christian Female College, the first college for women west of the Mississippi, which later became Columbia College.

The city benefited from being a stagecoach stop of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, and later from the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. In 1822, William Jewell set up the first hospital. In 1830, the first newspaper began; in 1832, the first theater in the state was opened; and in 1835, the state's first agricultural fair was held. By 1839, the population of 13,000 and wealth of Boone County was exceeded in Missouri only by that of St. Louis County, which, at that time, included the City of St. Louis. [17]

Columbia's infrastructure was relatively untouched by the Civil War. As a slave state, Missouri had many residents with Southern sympathies, but it stayed in the Union. The majority of the city was pro-Union; [14] however, the surrounding agricultural areas of Boone County and the rest of central Missouri were decidedly pro-Confederate. Because of this, the University of Missouri became a base from which Union troops operated. No battles were fought within the city because the presence of Union troops dissuaded Confederate guerrillas from attacking, though several major battles occurred at nearby Boonville and Centralia.

After Reconstruction, race relations in Columbia followed the Southern pattern of increasing violence of whites against blacks in efforts to suppress voting and free movement: George Burke, a black man who worked at the university, was lynched in 1889. [18] In the spring of 1923, James T. Scott, an African-American janitor at the University of Missouri, was arrested on allegations of raping a university professor's daughter. He was taken from the county jail and lynched on April 29 before a white mob of several hundred, hanged from the Old Stewart Road Bridge.

The Memorial Union at the University of Missouri

In the 21st century, a number of efforts have been undertaken to recognize Scott's death. In 2010 his death certificate was changed to reflect that he was never tried or convicted of charges, and that he had been lynched. In 2011 a headstone was put at his grave at Columbia Cemetery; it includes his wife's and parents' names and dates, to provide a fuller account of his life. [19] In 2016, a marker was erected at the lynching site to memorialize Scott. [20] In 1901, Rufus Logan established The Columbia Professional newspaper to serve Columbia's large African American population.

In 1963, University of Missouri System [21] and the Columbia College system established their headquarters in Columbia. [22] The insurance industry also became important to the local economy as several companies established headquarters in Columbia, including Shelter Insurance, Missouri Employers Mutual, and Columbia Insurance Group. State Farm Insurance has a regional office in Columbia. In addition, the now-defunct Silvey Insurance was a large local employer.

Columbia became a transportation crossroads when U.S. Route 63 and U.S. Route 40 (which was improved as present-day Interstate 70) were routed through the city. Soon after, the city opened the Columbia Regional Airport. By 2000, the city's population was nearly 85,000. [8]

A Solar eclipse totality from Columbia.
Totality as seen from Columbia

In 2017, Columbia was in the path of totality for the Solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. The city was expecting upwards of 400,000 tourists coming to view the eclipse. [23]


Columbia, in northern mid-Missouri, is 120 miles (190 km) away from both St. Louis and Kansas City, and 29 miles (47 km) north of the state capital of Jefferson City. [24] The city is near the Missouri River, between the Ozark Plateau and the Northern Plains. [25] [26]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 67.45 square miles (174.69 km2), of which 67.17 square miles (173.97 km2) is land and 0.28 square miles (0.73 km2) is water. [27]


The city generally slopes from the highest point in the Northeast to the lowest point in the Southwest towards the Missouri River. Prominent tributaries of the river are Perche Creek, Hinkson Creek, and Flat Branch Creek. Along these and other creeks in the area can be found large valleys, cliffs, and cave systems such as that in Rock Bridge State Park just south of the city. These creeks are largely responsible for numerous stream valleys giving Columbia hilly terrain similar to the Ozarks while also having prairie flatland typical of northern Missouri. [28] Columbia also operates several greenbelts with trails and parks throughout town.

Animal life

Large mammals found in the city include urbanized coyotes, [29] red foxes, and numerous whitetail deer. [30] Eastern gray squirrel, and other rodents are abundant, as well as cottontail rabbits and the nocturnal opossum and raccoon. [31] [32] Large bird species are abundant in parks and include the Canada goose, mallard duck, as well as shorebirds, including the great egret and great blue heron. Turkeys are also common in wooded areas and can occasionally be seen on the MKT recreation trail. Populations of bald eagles are found by the Missouri River. The city is on the Mississippi Flyway, used by migrating birds, and has a large variety of small bird species, common to the eastern U.S. The Eurasian tree sparrow, an introduced species, is limited in North America to the counties surrounding St. Louis. Columbia has large areas of forested and open land and many of these areas are home to wildlife.


Columbia has a humid continental climate ( Köppen Dfa) marked by sharp seasonal contrasts in temperature, and is in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6a. [33] The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 31.0 °F (−0.6 °C) in January to 78.5 °F (25.8 °C) in July, while the high reaches or exceeds 90 °F (32 °C) on an average of 35 days per year, 100 °F (38 °C) on two days, while two nights of sub-0 °F (−18 °C) lows can be expected. [34] Precipitation tends to be greatest and most frequent in the latter half of spring, when severe weather is also most common. Snow averages 16.5 inches (42 cm) per season, mostly from December to March, with occasional November accumulation and falls in April being rarer; historically seasonal snow accumulation has ranged from 3.4 in (8.6 cm) in 2005–06 to 54.9 in (139 cm) in 1977–78. [34] Extreme temperatures have ranged from −26 °F (−32 °C) on February 12, 1899 to 113 °F (45 °C) on July 12 and 14, 1954. Readings of −10 °F (−23 °C) or 105 °F (41 °C) are uncommon, the last occurrences being January 7, 2014 and July 31, 2012. [34]

Climate data for Columbia Regional Airport, Missouri (1991–2020 normals, [a] extremes 1889–present) [b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 77
Mean maximum °F (°C) 63.1
Average high °F (°C) 39.5
Daily mean °F (°C) 31.0
Average low °F (°C) 22.5
Mean minimum °F (°C) 0.4
Record low °F (°C) −20
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.12
Average snowfall inches (cm) 6.0
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 8.2 8.3 11.1 11.3 12.6 9.3 8.8 8.5 7.3 9.1 8.5 7.8 110.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.6 2.8 1.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.8 2.1 10.7
Average relative humidity (%) 71.2 71.5 67.3 63.9 70.9 71.3 69.5 70.8 71.7 69.4 71.8 74.0 70.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 161.5 154.3 193.5 226.9 264.1 294.1 313.4 288.5 229.1 210.7 150.6 140.3 2,627
Percent possible sunshine 53 51 52 57 60 66 69 68 61 61 50 48 59
Average ultraviolet index 2 3 5 7 8 9 10 9 7 4 3 2 6
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity 1969–1990, sun 1961–1990) [36] [34] [37]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV) [38]


Downtown Columbia

Columbia's most significant and well-known architecture is found in buildings located in its downtown area and on the university campuses. The University of Missouri's Jesse Hall and the neo-gothic Memorial Union have become icons of the city. The David R. Francis Quadrangle is an example of Thomas Jefferson's academic village concept.

Four historic districts located within the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Downtown Columbia, the East Campus Neighborhood, Francis Quadrangle, and the North Ninth Street Historic District. [39] The downtown skyline is relatively low and is dominated by the 10-story Tiger Hotel and the 15-story Paquin Tower.

Downtown Columbia is an area of approximately one square mile surrounded by the University of Missouri on the south, Stephens College to the east, and Columbia College on the north. The area serves as Columbia's financial and business district. [40]

Downtown apartment and mixed-use development next to the Missouri United Methodist Church in June 2017

Since the early-21st century, a large number of high-rise apartment complexes have been built in downtown Columbia. Many of these buildings also offer mixed-use business and retail space on the lower levels. These developments have not been without criticism, with some expressing concern the buildings hurt the historic feel of the area, or that the city does not yet have the infrastructure to support them. [41]

The city's historic residential core lies in a ring around downtown, extending especially to the west along Broadway, and south into the East Campus Neighborhood. The city government recognizes 63 neighborhood associations. [42] The city's most dense commercial areas are primarily along Interstate 70, U.S. Route 63, Stadium Boulevard, Grindstone Parkway, and Downtown.


Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
For the year 1850, slaves and free minorites were not counted.
U.S. Decennial Census [43]
U.S. Decennial Census [44]

2010 census

As of the census of 2010, 108,500 people, 43,065 households, and 21,418 families resided in the city. [45] The population density was 1,720.0 inhabitants per square mile (664.1/km2). There were 46,758 housing units at an average density of 741.2 per square mile (286.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 79.0% White, 11.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 5.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population.

There were 43,065 households, of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 50.3% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.94.

In the city the population was spread out, with 18.8% of residents under the age of 18; 27.3% between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.7% from 25 to 44; 18.6% from 45 to 64; and 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age in the city was 26.8 years. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 84,531 people, 33,689 households, and 17,282 families residing in the city. [46] The population density was 1,592.8 people per square mile (615.0/km2). There were 35,916 housing units at an average density of 676.8 per square mile (261.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 81.54% White, 10.85% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 4.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races, and 2.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.05% of the population. [46]

There were 33,689 households, out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.7% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.92. [46]

In the city, the population was spread out, with 19.7% under the age of 18, 26.7% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 16.2% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. [46]

The median income for a household in the city was $33,729, and the median income for a family was $52,288. Males had a median income of $34,710 versus $26,694 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,507. About 9.4% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over. [46] However, traditional statistics of income and poverty can be misleading when applied to cities with high student populations, such as Columbia. [47] [48]


Columbia's economy is historically dominated by education, healthcare, and insurance. [14] Jobs in government are also common, either in Columbia or a half-hour south in Jefferson City. [49] The Columbia Regional Airport and the Missouri River Port of Rocheport connect the region with trade and transportation.

With a Gross Metropolitan Product of $9.6 billion in 2018, Columbia's economy makes up 3% of the Gross State Product of Missouri. [50] Columbia's metro area economy is slightly larger than the economy of Rwanda. [51] Insurance corporations headquartered in Columbia include Shelter Insurance and the Columbia Insurance Group. Other organizations include StorageMart, Veterans United Home Loans, MFA Incorporated, the Missouri State High School Activities Association, and MFA Oil. Companies such as Socket, Datastorm Technologies, Inc. (no longer existent), Slackers CDs and Games, Carfax, [52] and MBS Textbook Exchange were all founded in Columbia.

Top employers

According to Columbia's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [53] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees % of Total City Employment
1 University of Missouri 8,310 8.75%
2 University of Missouri Health Care 4,831 5.09%
3 Columbia Public Schools 2,530 2.66%
4 Veterans United Home Loans 1,817 1.91%
6 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital 1,602 1.69%
5 City of Columbia 1,369 1.44%
7 Boone Hospital Center 1,175 1.24%
8 Shelter Insurance 1,175 1.24%
9 MBS Textbook Exchange 746 0.79%
10 Columbia College 697 0.73%


The Blue Note is a rock and pop venue located in Downtown Columbia.

The Missouri Theatre Center for the Arts and Jesse Auditorium are Columbia's largest fine arts venues. Ragtag Cinema annually hosts the True/False Film Festival.

In 2008, filmmaker Todd Sklar completed the film Box Elder, which was filmed entirely in and around Columbia and the University of Missouri.

The North Village Arts District, located on the north side of downtown, is home to galleries, restaurants, theaters, bars, music venues, and the Missouri Contemporary Ballet.

The University of Missouri's Museum of Art and Archaeology displays 14,000 works of art and archaeological objects in five galleries for no charge to the public. [54] Libraries include the Columbia Public Library, the University of Missouri Libraries, with over three million volumes in Ellis Library, and the State Historical Society of Missouri.


The "We Always Swing" Jazz Series [55] and the Roots N Blues Festival [56] is held in Columbia. "9th Street Summerfest" (now hosted in Rose Park at Rose Music Hall) closes part of that street several nights each summer to hold outdoor performances and has featured Willie Nelson (2009), [57] Snoop Dogg (2010), [58] The Flaming Lips (2010), [58] Weird Al Yankovic (2013), [59] and others. The "University Concert Series" regularly includes musicians and dancers from various genres, typically in Jesse Hall. Other musical venues in town include the Missouri Theatre, the university's multipurpose Hearnes Center, the university's Mizzou Arena, The Blue Note, and Rose Music Hall. Shelter Gardens, a park on the campus of Shelter Insurance headquarters, also hosts outdoor performances during the summer. [60]

The Sinquefield Music Center, home to the University of Missouri School of Music

The University of Missouri School of Music attracts hundreds of musicians to Columbia, student performances are held in Whitmore Recital Hall. Among many non-profit organizations for classical music are included the "Odyssey Chamber Music Series", [61] " Missouri Symphony", "Columbia Community Band", and "Columbia Civic Orchestra". Founded in 2006, the "Plowman Chamber Music Competition" [62] is a biennial competition held in March/April of odd-numbered years, considered to be one of the finest, top five chamber music competitions in the nation.


Columbia has multiple opportunities to watch and perform in theatrical productions. Ragtag Cinema is one of the most well known theaters in Columbia. The city is home to Stephens College, a private institution known for performing arts. Their season includes multiple plays and musicals. The University of Missouri and Columbia College also present multiple productions a year.

The Missouri Theater

The city's three public high schools are also known for their productions. Rock Bridge High School performs a musical in November and two plays in the spring. Hickman High School also performs a similar season with two musical performances (one in the fall, and one in the spring) and 2 plays (one in the winter, and one at the end of their school year). The newest high school, Battle High, opened in 2013 and also is known for their productions. Battle presents a musical in the fall and a play in the spring, along with improv nights and more productions throughout the year.

The city is also home to the indoor/outdoor theatre Maplewood Barn Theatre in Nifong Park and other community theatre programs such as Columbia Entertainment Company, Talking Horse Productions, Pace Youth Theatre and TRYPS.


Faurot Field before a football game

The University of Missouri's sports teams, the Missouri Tigers, play a significant role in the city's sports culture. Faurot Field at Memorial Stadium, which has a capacity of 71,168, hosts home football games. The Hearnes Center and Mizzou Arena are two other large sport and event venues, the latter being the home arena for Mizzou's basketball team. Taylor Stadium is host to their baseball team and was the regional host for the 2007 NCAA Baseball Championship. [63] Columbia College has several men and women collegiate sports teams as well. In 2007, Columbia hosted the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Volleyball National Championship, which the Lady Cougars participated in. [64]

Columbia also hosts the Show-Me State Games, a non-profit program of the Missouri Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health. They are the largest state games in the United States. [65] [66]

Situated midway between St. Louis and Kansas City, Columbians will often have allegiances to the professional sports teams housed there, such as the St. Louis Cardinals, the Kansas City Royals, the Kansas City Chiefs, the St. Louis Blues, Sporting Kansas City, and St. Louis City SC. [67]

Booches bar and grill


Columbia has many bars and restaurants that provide diverse styles of cuisine, due in part to having three colleges. [68] One such establishment is the historic Booches bar, restaurant, and pool hall, which was established in 1884 and is frequented by college students. [69] Shakespeare's Pizza is known across the nation for its college town pizza. [70]

Parks and recreation

Rock Bridge at Rock Bridge Memorial State Park
The iconic rock bridge of Rock Bridge Memorial State Park

Throughout the city are many parks and trails for public usage. Among the more popularly frequented is the MKT which is a spur that connects to the Katy Trail, meeting up just south of Columbia proper. The MKT ranked second in the nation for "Best Urban Trail" in the 2015 USA Today's 10 Best Readers' Choice Awards. This 10-foot wide trail built on the old railbed of the MKT railroad begins in downtown Columbia in Flat Branch Park at 4th and Cherry Streets. The all-weather crushed limestone surface provides opportunities for walking, jogging, running, and bicycling. [71] Stephens Lake Park is the highlight of Columbia's park system and is known for its 11-acre fishing/swimming lake, mature trees, and historical significance in the community. It serves as the center for outdoor winter sports, a variety of community festivals such as the Roots N Blues Festival, and outdoor concert series at the amphitheater. Stephens Lake has reservable shelters, playgrounds, swimming beach and spraygrounds, art sculptures, waterfalls, and walking trails. [72] Rock Bridge State Park is open year-round giving visitors the chance to scramble, hike, and bicycle through a scenic environment. Rock Bridge State Park contains some of the most popular hiking trails in the state, including the Gans Creek Wild Area. [73] Columbia is home to Harmony Bends Disc Golf Course (, which was named the 2017 Disc Golf Course of the Year by As of June, 2022, Harmony Bends still continues to rank on as the No. 1 public course, and #2 overall course in the United States


The Columbia Missourian headquarters

The city has two daily morning newspapers: the Columbia Missourian and the Columbia Daily Tribune. The Missourian is directed by professional editors and staffed by Missouri School of Journalism students who do reporting, design, copy editing, information graphics, photography, and multimedia. The Missourian publishes the weekly city magazine, Vox. [74] With a daily circulation of nearly 20,000, the Daily Tribune is the most widely read newspaper in central Missouri. The University of Missouri has the independent official bi-weekly student newspaper called The Maneater, and the quarterly literary magazine, The Missouri Review. The now-defunct Prysms Weekly was also published in Columbia. In late 2009, KCOU News launched full operations out of KCOU 88.1 FM on the MU Campus. The entirely student-run news organization airs a weekday newscast, The Pulse.

The city has 4 television channels. [75] Columbia Access Television (CAT or CAT-TV) is the public access channel. CPSTV is the education access channel, managed by Columbia Public Schools as a function of the Columbia Public Schools Community Relations Department. The Government Access channel broadcasts City Council, Planning and Zoning Commission, and Board of Adjustment meetings.


Columbia Area Television
Station Channel Network Subchannels
KMOS-TV 6 PBS 6.2 Create

6.3 KMOS Emerge

6.4 PBS Kids

KOMU-TV 8 NBC 8.3 The CW+
KRCG 13 CBS 13.2 Comet

13.3 Charge!

13.4 TBD

KMIZ 17 ABC 17.2 MeTV

17.3 MyNetworkTV

17.4 Fox

17.5 Bounce TV

KQFX-LD 22 Fox 22.2 Laff

22.3 Grit

22.4 Court TV Mystery

22.5 Dabl

KFDR 25 CTN 25.2 CTNi

25.3 CTN ( SD)

25.4 CTN Lifestyle

K35OY-D 35 Azteca America 35.2 Infomercials

35.3 Infomercials

35.4 Infomercials

KGKM-LD 36 Telemundo 36.2 Ion Television

36.3 Court TV

36.4 Defy TV

36.5 TrueReal

36.6 Newsy


Columbia has 19 radio stations as well as stations licensed from Jefferson City, Macon and, Lake of the Ozarks.




  • KCOU 88.1 MHz • College
  • KOPN 89.5 MHz • Public
  • KMUC 90.5 MHz • Classical
  • KBIA 91.3 MHz • News ( NPR)
  • KMFC 92.1 MHz • Christian ( K-Love)
  • KWJK 93.1 MHz • Variety (JACK FM)
  • KSSZ 93.9 MHz • News/Talk
  • KWWR 95.7 MHz • Country
  • KCMQ 96.7 MHz • Classic Rock
  • KDVC 98.3 MHz • Classic Hits
  • KCLR 99.3 MHz • Country
  • KPLA 101.5 MHz • Variety
  • KBXR 102.3 MHz • Alternative
  • KZZT 105.5 MHz • Classic Rock
  • KOQL 106.1 MHz • Top 40
  • KTXY 106.9 MHz Top 40


Government and politics

The Boone County Courthouse within the Boone County Government Center

Columbia's current government was established by a home rule charter adopted by voters on November 11, 1974, which established a council-manager government that invested power in the city council. The city council has seven members: six elected by each of Columbia's six single-member districts or wards and an at-large member, the mayor, who is elected by all city voters. The mayor receives a $9,000 annual stipend, and the six other members receive a $6,000 annual stipend. They are elected to staggered three-year terms. As well as serving as a voting member of the city council, the mayor is recognized as the head of city government for ceremonial purposes. Chief executive authority is invested in a hired city manager, who oversees the government's day-to-day operations. [77]

Columbia is the county seat of Boone County, and houses the county court and government center. The city is in Missouri's 4th congressional district. The 19th Missouri State Senate district covers all of Boone County. There are five Missouri House of Representatives districts (9, 21, 23, 24, and 25) in the city. The Columbia Police Department provides law enforcement across the city, while the Columbia Fire Department provides fire protection. The University of Missouri Police Department also patrols areas on and around the University of Missouri campus and has jurisdiction throughout the state. Additionally, the Boone County Sheriff's Department, the law enforcement agency for the county, regularly patrols the city. The Public Service Joint Communications Center coordinates efforts between the two organizations as well as the Boone County Fire Protection District, which operates Urban Search and Rescue Missouri Task Force 1.

The Daniel Boone Building houses Columbia's City Hall.

The population generally supports progressive causes, such as recycling programs and the decriminalization of cannabis [78] [79] both for medical and recreational use at the municipal level, though the scope of the latter of the two cannabis ordinances has since been restricted. [80] The city is one of only four in the state to offer medical benefits to same-sex partners of city employees. [81] The new health plan extends health benefits to unmarried heterosexual domestic partners of city employees.

On October 10, 2006, the city council approved an ordinance to prohibit smoking in public places, including restaurants and bars. The ordinance was passed over protest, and several amendments to the ordinance reflect this. [82] Over half of residents possess at least a bachelor's degree, [83] while over a quarter hold a graduate degree. [84] Columbia is the 13th most-highly educated municipality in the United States. [84]


Columbia and much of the surrounding area lies within the Columbia Public School District. The district enrolled more than 18,000 students and had a budget of $281 million for the 2019–20 school year. [85] It is above the state average in both attendance percentage and graduation rate. [86] The city operates four public high schools which cover grades 9–12: David H. Hickman High School, Rock Bridge High School, Muriel Battle High School, and Frederick Douglass High School. Rock Bridge is one of two Missouri high schools to receive a silver medal by U.S. News & World Report, putting it in the Top 3% of all high schools in the nation. [87] Hickman has been on Newsweek magazine's list of Top 1,300 schools in the country for the past three years and has more named presidential scholars than any other public high school in the US. [87] There are also several private high schools located in the city, including Christian Fellowship School, Columbia Independent School, Heritage Academy, Christian Chapel Academy, and Tolton High School. [88]

CPS also manages seven middle schools: Jefferson, West, Oakland, Gentry, Smithton, Lange, and John Warner. John Warner Middle School first opened for the 2020/21 school year..

The city has three institutions of higher education: the University of Missouri, Stephens College, and Columbia College, all of which surround Downtown Columbia. The city is the headquarters of the University of Missouri System, which operates campuses in St. Louis, Kansas City, and Rolla. Moberly Area Community College, Central Methodist University, and William Woods University as well as operates satellite campuses in Columbia.



The Columbia Transit provides public bus and para-transit service, and is owned and operated by the city. In 2008, 1,414,400 passengers boarded along the system's six fixed routes and nine University of Missouri shuttle routes, and 27,000 boarded the Para-transit service. [89] The system is constantly experiencing growth in service and technology. A $3.5 million project to renovate and expand the Wabash Station, a rail depot built in 1910 and converted into the city's transit center in the mid-1980s, was completed in summer of 2007. [90] [91] In 2007, a Transit Master Plan was created to address the future transit needs of the city and county with a comprehensive plan to add infrastructure in three key phases. [92] The five to 15-year plan intends to add service along the southwest, southeast and northeast sections of Columbia and develop alternative transportation models for Boone County.

The city is served by Columbia Regional Airport. The closest rail station is Jefferson City station, in the state capital Jefferson City.

Columbia is also known for its MKT Trail, a spur of the Katy Trail State Park, which allows foot and bike traffic across the city, and, conceivably, the state. It consists of a soft gravel surface for running and biking. Columbia also is preparing to embark on construction of several new bike paths and street bike lanes thanks to a $25 million grant from the federal government. [93] The city is also served by American Airlines and United Airlines at the Columbia Regional Airport, the only commercial airport in mid-Missouri.

I-70 (concurrent with US 40) and US 63 are the two main freeways used for travel to and from Columbia. Within the city, there are also three state highways: Routes 763 (Rangeline Street & College Avenue), 163 (Providence Road), and 740 (Stadium Boulevard).

Rail service is provided by the city-owned Columbia Terminal Railroad (COLT), which runs from the north side of Columbia to Centralia and a connection to the Norfolk Southern Railway. Columbia would be at the center of the proposed Missouri Hyperloop, reducing travel times to Kansas City and St. Louis to around 15 minutes. [94]

Health systems

The University of Missouri Hospital is the main hospital of the MU Health Care System, and it is the largest hospital in Columbia.

Health care is a big part of Columbia's economy, with nearly one in six people working in a health-care related profession [95] [96] and a physician density that is about three times the United States average. [97] [98] The city's hospitals and supporting facilities are a large referral center for the state, and medical related trips to the city are common. [99] There are three hospital systems within the city and five hospitals with a total of 1,105 beds. [95] [98]

Boone Hospital Center is the second largest hospital in Columbia and is the largest private hospital in Boone County.

The University of Missouri Health Care operates three hospitals in Columbia: the University of Missouri Hospital, the University of Missouri Women's and Children's Hospital (formerly Columbia Regional Hospital), and the Ellis Fischel Cancer Center. Boone Hospital Center is administered by BJC Healthcare and operates several clinics as well as outpatient locations. The Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, adjacent to University Hospital, is administered by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.

There are a large number of medical-related industries in Columbia. The University of Missouri School of Medicine uses university-owned facilities as teaching hospitals. The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the largest research reactor in the United States and produces radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. [100] The center serves as the sole supplier of the active ingredients in two U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved radiopharmaceuticals and produces Fluorine-18 used in PET imaging with its cyclotron. [101]

Sister cities

In accordance with the Columbia Sister Cities Program, which operates in conjunction with Sister Cities International, Columbia has been paired with five international sister cities in an attempt to foster cross-cultural understanding: [102]

See also


  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. ^ Official records for Columbia kept at downtown from August 1889 to December 1947, Columbia Municipal Airport from January 1948 to October 1969 and at Columbia Regional Airport since November 1969. [35]


  1. ^ Switzler, William (1882). History of Boone County, Missouri. St. Louis Western Historical Company. pp. 220–221.
  2. ^ a b Alban, Sarah (October 30, 2007). "How CoMO does Halloween". The Maneater. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
  3. ^ "City Council".
  4. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 28, 2022.
  5. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2017 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2018.[ permanent dead link]
  6. ^ "Columbia". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior.
  7. ^ "About Columbia". City of Columbia, Missouri. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  8. ^ a b "City of Columbia, Missouri Demographic Statistics" (PDF). City of Columbia, Missouri. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 1, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  9. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  10. ^ Sauter, Michael B. (April 10, 2018). "Is your city's population keeping pace? The fastest-growing city in each state". USA Today.
  11. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Columbia city, Missouri".
  12. ^ "2020 Census estimates for Missouri cities". Retrieved May 29, 2021.
  13. ^ "Columbia, Missouri". Forbes. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  14. ^ a b c "History of Columbia". Columbia Public Schools. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  15. ^ "Columbia Kudos" (PDF). Columbia Regional Economic Development (REDI). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  16. ^ a b Switzler, William (1882). History of Boone County, Missouri. St. Louis Western Historical Company. pp. 300–310.
  17. ^ Switzler, William (1882). History of Boone County, Missouri. St. Louis Western Historical Company. pp. 325–327.
  18. ^ NAACP (1919). Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889–1918. NAACP. p. 80.
  19. ^ Bergen, Katy (May 3, 2011). "Community celebrates life of lynching victim James T. Scott". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on June 16, 2018. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  20. ^ Marion, Ann (September 30, 2016). "New plaque memorializes 1923 lynching victim James T. Scott". Missourian. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  21. ^ "History of the University". University of Missouri System. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
  22. ^ "Welcome to Columbia College". Columbia College. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
  23. ^ May, Ethan (July 28, 2017). "Solar Eclipse 2017: Here's what you need to know". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
  24. ^ "About Columbia". MU internal Medicine and Child Health. Archived from the original on October 10, 2004. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  25. ^ "Maps". Columbia Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  26. ^ "Early Settlement Rural...Ozark Frontier". National Park Service. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  27. ^ "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  28. ^ Unklesbay, A.G. (1952). Geology of Boone County, Missouri. Missouri Geological Survey.
  29. ^ "Coyote". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  30. ^ "Whitetale deer". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  31. ^ "Eastern Gray Squirrel". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  32. ^ "Mammals (In Missouri)". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  33. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University. 2012. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
  34. ^ a b c d "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  35. ^ ThreadEx
  36. ^ "Station: Columbia RGNL AP, MS". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  37. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for Columbia/Regional ARPT, MO 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  38. ^ "Columbia, MO - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Yu Media Group. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  39. ^ "Recent Listings". National Park Service. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  40. ^ "Discover The District". The District. Archived from the original on January 22, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  41. ^ "Council candidates: City needs to address growing pains". Columbia Daily Tribune. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
  42. ^ "Columbia, Missouri Neighborhood Associations" (PDF). City of Columbia. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2008.
  43. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  44. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  45. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  46. ^ a b c d e "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  47. ^ "When Off-Campus College Students are Excluded, Poverty Rates Fall in Many College Towns - Poverty - Newsroom - U.S. Census Bureau". Archived from the original on August 1, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  48. ^ "A study in poverty, or how college towns skew Census data - Policy Blog NH". Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  49. ^ "Largest Employers". Columbia REDI. Archived from the original on November 2, 2006. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  50. ^ "September 2019 Metro Economies Report" (PDF). U.S. Conference of Mayors. September 2019. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 30, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
  51. ^ "2018 Country GDP". World Bank. 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
  52. ^ McCormick, Lisa Wade (October 10, 2006). "Carfax History". Consumer affairs. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
  53. ^ "Comprehensive Annual Financial Reports (FY 2018 CAFR)" (PDF). City of Columbia. 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 3, 2020. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
  54. ^ "Collections". Museum of Art and Archaeology. Archived from the original on August 19, 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  55. ^ "Jazz Series Website". Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  56. ^ "Roots 'N Blues 'N Barbeque Festival Website". Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  57. ^ Bland, Pete (March 19, 2009). "Willie Nelson kicking off Ninth Street Summerfest". Columbia Daily Tribune. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
  58. ^ a b Hudnall, David (June 28, 2010). "Flaming Lips, Snoop Dogg, Ice Cube help celebrate the Blue Note's 30th anniversary". The Pitch. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
  59. ^ "CoMo's ABCs: Our roundup of the most unexpected things Columbia has to offer/W". Mizzou Magazine. The Curators of the University of Missouri. February 17, 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
  60. ^ "Shelter Gardens". Columbia Convention and Visitors Bureau. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
  61. ^ "Odyssey Chamber Music Series Website". Retrieved August 24, 2011.
  62. ^ "Plowman Competition Website". Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  63. ^ "2007 NCAA Division I College Baseball Regional & Super Regional Schedule & Results". NCAA. June 7, 2007. Archived from the original on July 10, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2008.
  64. ^ "NAIA Volleyball National Championship". Columbia College. Archived from the original on January 8, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  65. ^ "Show-Me State Games 2008". Show-Me State Games. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  66. ^ "Show-Me State Games – About Us". 360Columbia. Archived from the original on January 5, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  67. ^ "Chiefs and rams fans remain dedicated despite down years". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
  68. ^ Wise, C.C. (2007). The Law School Buzz Book. Law School Buzz Book Series. Vault, Incorporated. p. 375. ISBN  978-1-58131-424-3. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
  69. ^ Jarzemsky, Matt (April 18, 2008). "Pool hall popularity change over generations". Columbia Business Times. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  70. ^ "Shakespeare's Pizza Wins National Contest". Archived from the original on January 3, 2020. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
  71. ^ "MKT Nature and Fitness Trail". Columbia Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  72. ^ "Stephens Lake Park". Columbia Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  73. ^ drupal.symposiarch (December 10, 2010). "Rock Bridge Memorial State Park". Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  74. ^ "About the Missourian". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  75. ^ "Local Media". Columbia Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on September 22, 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  76. ^ a b "Radio Stations in Columbia, Missouri".
  77. ^ "Columbia Code of Ordinances". City of Columbia. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  78. ^ Willems, Spencer (November 8, 2007). "Ideological scales: A look at Columbia's political landscape". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on January 11, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  79. ^ Zagier, Alan Scher (November 10, 2005). "Marijuana law gets new review". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  80. ^ Hammes, Joanie (February 21, 2006). "City Council revises pot ordinance". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  81. ^ Salazar, Anne (December 19, 2006). "Council Oks Benefits for Domestic Partners". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  82. ^ "Smoking Ban Passes". Columbia Missourian. October 10, 2006. Archived from the original on July 27, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  83. ^ "American Factfinder Columbia, Missouri". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  84. ^ a b "Money's best places to live – most educated". Money Magazine. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  85. ^ "Columbia Public Schools 2019-20 Budget" (PDF). Columbia Public Schools. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
  86. ^ "School Accountability Report Card". Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  87. ^ a b Heavin, Janese (December 3, 2007). "Rock Bridge gains national recognition". Columbia Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  88. ^ Braden, Jonathon. "Catholic high has a name as donations still sought". Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
  89. ^ "Home - Public Works". Public Works. Archived from the original on January 15, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  90. ^ Latzko, Laura (October 17, 2007). "Moving Greyhound services to Wabash still a major goal for City Council". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  91. ^ "Historic Wabash Station Renovation". Columbia Public Works. Archived from the original on March 17, 2009. Retrieved July 19, 2008.
  92. ^ "COMO Connect" (PDF). March 30, 2015. Retrieved March 22, 2016.[ permanent dead link]
  93. ^ "$25 Million of Federal Funding for Columbia's Bike/Ped Network". PedNet Coalition. July 28, 2005. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  94. ^ della Cava, Marco (January 30, 2018). "Is Missouri ready for 700 mph hyperloop commutes?". USA Today. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  95. ^ a b "Hospitals offer a vital indicator of fiscal health". Columbia Daily Tribune. June 17, 2007. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
  96. ^ "The Columbia Area". Missouri Health Sciences Psychology Consortium. Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  97. ^ "Physician Migration to the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia". Academy Health. Archived from the original (PPT) on September 10, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  98. ^ a b "Community Profile". Columbia Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  99. ^ "Health Care". Columbia Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
  100. ^ "Universities". The Missouri Life Sciences Project. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
  101. ^ "MU Research Reactor Submits 20-year License Renewal Application". MU News Bureau. November 24, 2006. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  102. ^ "Columbia's Sister Cities". The City of Columbia. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2008.


External links