Climate of New York City

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New York
Climate chart ( explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
3.6
 
 
40
28
 
 
3.2
 
 
42
30
 
 
4.3
 
 
50
36
 
 
4.1
 
 
62
46
 
 
4
 
 
71
55
 
 
4.5
 
 
80
64
 
 
4.6
 
 
85
70
 
 
4.6
 
 
83
69
 
 
4.3
 
 
76
62
 
 
4.4
 
 
65
51
 
 
3.6
 
 
54
42
 
 
4.4
 
 
44
34
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: "New York City Weatherbox NOAA"
Deep snow in Brooklyn during the Blizzard of 2006 Nor'easter

The climate of New York City features a humid subtropical variety (Cfa), with parts of the city transitioning into a humid continental climate. (Dfa) [1] This gives the city cool, wet winters and hot, humid summers with plentiful rainfall all year round. Meteorological records have been kept at Central Park since 1821, although the station was relocated to a different part of the park on January 1, 1920. [2] There are also other weather stations in the area including one at LaGuardia Airport, beginning in 1940, and at JFK Airport, beginning in 1948. However, due to Central Park's long records and central location, it is often considered the main station for the city. Hence, all records unless otherwise stated will be for this station.

The highest temperature ever observed in Central Park is 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936 and the lowest is −15 °F (−26 °C) on February 9, 1934. The lowest daily maximum is 2 °F (−17 °C) on December 30, 1917. The highest daily minimum at Central Park is 87 °F (31 °C) on July 2, 1903. [3] However, LaGuardia reported 107 °F (42 °C) on July 3, 1966.

The city can be prone to extremes. Snowfall is an infrequent occurrence in the city, on average occurring on only 12 days per year, though it can be heavy when it occurs. The city can also be prone to strong winds, being a coastal location it is exposed to the Atlantic. This can be especially pronounced during the autumn and winter months, with a gust of 78 miles per hour (126 km/h) being reported on December 2, 1974. [4]

Classifications

Union Square in autumn

New York City falls under different climate types depending on the climate classification system used. However, the Koppen climate classification system is the most widely used climate classification scheme.

New York City Climate according to major climate systems
Climatic scheme Initials Description
Köppen system [5] Cfa humid subtropical climate
Trewartha system [6] Do Temperate oceanic climate
Alisov system [7] Temperate climate [a]
Strahler system [8] Moist continental climate
Thornthwaite system [9]
C2 B'1
Moist subhumid
Neef system [10] Temperate climate

In the Holdridge life zones system, having a mean annual biotemperature above 53.6 °F (12 °C) and mean annual precipitation above 39.4 inches (1,000 mm), New York City features a warm temperate moist forest climate. [11] The USDA plant hardiness zones are 7a and 7b. Most of the city is found in 7b, with forested areas and parks being in 7a, as shown in Staten Island and suburban areas. The city also has some small densely populated areas in 8a, like around Laguardia airport. [12]

Temperature

The city's regime of temperature features large seasonal swings, with 4 distinct seasons. However, due to its proximity to the Atlantic ocean, these swings are less significant than areas further inland. The Atlantic serves as a moderator of the temperature meaning the city is milder than areas inland during the winter and cooler during the summer. Although, being on the east coast, this effect is less pronounced. All extremes are for the Central Park station.

Averages

In an average year, the temperature will usually be between 7 °F (−14 °C) and 97 °F (36 °C) with temperatures greatly exceeding these values being uncommon. Temperatures above 100 °F (38 °C) and below 0 °F (−18 °C) are very rare, with the last occurrences being July 18, 2012 and February 14, 2016, respectively. [13]

Climate data for New York ( Belvedere Castle, Central Park), 1991–2020 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean maximum °F (°C) 60.4
(15.8)
60.7
(15.9)
70.3
(21.3)
82.9
(28.3)
88.5
(31.4)
92.1
(33.4)
95.7
(35.4)
93.4
(34.1)
89.0
(31.7)
79.7
(26.5)
70.7
(21.5)
62.9
(17.2)
97.0
(36.1)
Average high °F (°C) 39.5
(4.2)
42.2
(5.7)
49.9
(9.9)
61.8
(16.6)
71.4
(21.9)
79.7
(26.5)
84.9
(29.4)
83.3
(28.5)
76.2
(24.6)
64.5
(18.1)
54.0
(12.2)
44.3
(6.8)
62.6
(17.0)
Daily mean °F (°C) 33.7
(0.9)
35.9
(2.2)
42.8
(6.0)
53.7
(12.1)
63.2
(17.3)
72.0
(22.2)
77.5
(25.3)
76.1
(24.5)
69.2
(20.7)
57.9
(14.4)
48.0
(8.9)
39.1
(3.9)
55.8
(13.2)
Average low °F (°C) 27.9
(−2.3)
29.5
(−1.4)
35.8
(2.1)
45.5
(7.5)
55.0
(12.8)
64.4
(18.0)
70.1
(21.2)
68.9
(20.5)
62.3
(16.8)
51.4
(10.8)
42.0
(5.6)
33.8
(1.0)
48.9
(9.4)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 9.8
(−12.3)
12.7
(−10.7)
19.7
(−6.8)
32.8
(0.4)
43.9
(6.6)
52.7
(11.5)
61.8
(16.6)
60.3
(15.7)
50.2
(10.1)
38.4
(3.6)
27.7
(−2.4)
18.0
(−7.8)
7.7
(−13.5)
Source: NOAA [14]
Climate data for New York ( Central Park), 1822–1871 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °F (°C) 29.8
(−1.2)
30.4
(−0.9)
38.1
(3.4)
48.7
(9.3)
59.2
(15.1)
69.3
(20.7)
74.8
(23.8)
73.2
(22.9)
65.7
(18.7)
54.5
(12.5)
43.5
(6.4)
33.3
(0.7)
51.6
(10.9)
Source: [15]

Highest daily temperatures

Daily record warm minima

Highest averages

Precipitation

Snow at Central Park during the winter in 2011.

The city sees frequent, heavy rainfall which averages 49.9 in (1,267 mm) annually, with spring being the wettest season and February the driest month. Every single month in the city's recorded history has reported some rainfall, alerting the variability of the climate. Further highlighting the city's variability of weather is the record of only 36 consecutive days without precipitation, between October 10 and November 13, 1924. The city also sees snow, primarily in winter, but sometimes in the late autumn and early spring. Snowfall averages 29.8 in (75.7 cm) per year but is highly variable between winter seasons. [18] The most rainfall in 24 hours was 8.28 in (210.3 mm) on September 23, 1882 and the most snowfall was 27.3 in (69 cm) on January 23, 2016. [19]

Averages

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.64
(92)
3.19
(81)
4.29
(109)
4.09
(104)
3.96
(101)
4.54
(115)
4.60
(117)
4.56
(116)
4.31
(109)
4.38
(111)
3.58
(91)
4.38
(111)
49.52
(1,258)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 8.8
(22)
10.1
(26)
5.0
(13)
0.4
(1.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.5
(1.3)
4.9
(12)
29.8
(76)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.8 10.0 11.1 11.4 11.5 11.2 10.5 10.0 8.8 9.5 9.2 11.4 125.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.7 3.2 2.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.1 11.4
Source: NOAA [14]

Rainfall Extremes

Snowfall

Other phenomena

Sunshine, UV and daylight

The city generally experiences sunny conditions. As a result of New York City's latitude, 40°42′46″N 74°00′22″W / 40.712740°N 74.005974°W / 40.712740; -74.005974
Latitude and Longitude:

40°42′46″N 74°00′22″W / 40.712740°N 74.005974°W / 40.712740; -74.005974
, it is not subject to the extremes of daylight that places much farther north see. [21] However, it is far north enough for there to be a moderate change of possible daylight hours throughout the year. [22]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean monthly sunshine hours 162.7 163.1 212.5 225.6 256.6 257.3 268.2 268.2 219.3 211.2 151.0 139.0 2,534.7
Mean daily daylight hours 9.7 10.7 12.0 13.3 14.5 15.1 14.7 13.7 12.4 11.1 9.9 9.3 12.2
Percent possible sunshine 54 55 57 57 57 57 59 63 59 61 48 48 57
Average ultraviolet index 2 3 4 6 7 8 8 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990) [23]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [22]

Wind

The wind is seldom strong in New York City but can occasionally be noticeable. This is especially true in the autumn and winter seasons when extratropical depressions often bring strong winds. The strongest gust in Central Park, of 78 miles per hour (126 km/h), occurred on December 2, 1974 however, a station at The Battery reported a gust of 113 miles per hour (182 km/h) on October 14, 1954. [24] However, tropical storms can sometimes affect the area, although they are infrequent and usually weak. Most recently Hurricane Sandy struck the city on October 29, 2012 causing billions of dollars in damage. It resulted in loss of power, severe flooding and many residents being displaced. [25]

Climate change

The Queens–Midtown Tunnel is seen flooded in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy.
Queens–Midtown Tunnel after flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012. Climate change means events like this will become more likely.

Being a coastal city, New York City is expected to experience significant effects from rising sea levels. Predictions that the sea level will rise by as much as 6 feet (1.8 m) by 2100 have prompted the city's mayor to invest $10 billion dollars into keeping the city safe. [26] The city is also expected to become more susceptible to storm surges and flooding, meaning events like Hurricane Sandy's impacts will become more likely in the future.

Temperature

The temperature in New York City has generally increased steadily of the last 150 years and this trend is expected to continue due to anthropogenic warming. By 2080, it is predicted that the climate of the city will be similar to southern Kansas. The mean temperature has risen by 2.4 °F (1.3 °C) since the 1970s and this warming is expected to accelerate in the coming decades. [27] [28]

Precipitation

Precipitation in the city has significantly increased since 2000; both rainfall and snowfall have risen, but snowfall has increased much more significantly. However, it is argued that such trends, being so recent, make it impossible to predict whether such increases will continue or become steadier. [29]

Station data

Climate data for New York LaGuardia Airport, NY (1991-2020 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 72
(22)
79
(26)
86
(30)
94
(34)
97
(36)
101
(38)
107
(42)
104
(40)
102
(39)
95
(35)
83
(28)
75
(24)
107
(42)
Average high °F (°C) 40.2
(4.6)
42.7
(5.9)
49.9
(9.9)
61.3
(16.3)
71.8
(22.1)
81.1
(27.3)
86.4
(30.2)
84.5
(29.2)
77.2
(25.1)
66.0
(18.9)
55.0
(12.8)
45.4
(7.4)
63.5
(17.5)
Daily mean °F (°C) 34.4
(1.3)
36.3
(2.4)
43.1
(6.2)
53.6
(12.0)
63.7
(17.6)
73.4
(23.0)
79.2
(26.2)
77.7
(25.4)
70.8
(21.6)
59.6
(15.3)
49.1
(9.5)
40.0
(4.4)
56.8
(13.8)
Average low °F (°C) 28.6
(−1.9)
29.9
(−1.2)
36.2
(2.3)
46.0
(7.8)
55.7
(13.2)
65.7
(18.7)
71.9
(22.2)
71.0
(21.7)
64.4
(18.0)
53.3
(11.8)
43.2
(6.2)
34.7
(1.5)
50.1
(10.1)
Record low °F (°C) −3
(−19)
−7
(−22)
7
(−14)
22
(−6)
36
(2)
46
(8)
56
(13)
51
(11)
42
(6)
30
(−1)
17
(−8)
−2
(−19)
−7
(−22)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.25
(83)
2.93
(74)
4.01
(102)
3.85
(98)
3.58
(91)
4.03
(102)
4.30
(109)
4.41
(112)
3.88
(99)
3.81
(97)
3.15
(80)
4.08
(104)
45.28
(1,150)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 8.6
(22)
9.8
(25)
5.4
(14)
0.4
(1.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.3
(0.76)
5.2
(13)
29.8
(76)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.3 10.2 10.9 11.2 11.6 10.7 9.7 9.5 8.3 9.0 8.8 11.5 121.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.4 3.7 2.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.7 13.8
Source: NOAA [30] [31]
Climate data for New York Central Park, NY (1991-2020 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 72
(22)
78
(26)
86
(30)
96
(36)
99
(37)
101
(38)
106
(41)
104
(40)
102
(39)
94
(34)
84
(29)
75
(24)
106
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 39.5
(4.2)
42.2
(5.7)
49.9
(9.9)
61.8
(16.6)
71.4
(21.9)
79.7
(26.5)
84.9
(29.4)
83.3
(28.5)
76.2
(24.6)
64.5
(18.1)
54.0
(12.2)
44.3
(6.8)
62.6
(17.0)
Daily mean °F (°C) 33.7
(0.9)
35.9
(2.2)
42.8
(6.0)
53.7
(12.1)
63.2
(17.3)
72.0
(22.2)
77.5
(25.3)
76.1
(24.5)
69.2
(20.7)
57.9
(14.4)
48.0
(8.9)
39.1
(3.9)
55.8
(13.2)
Average low °F (°C) 27.9
(−2.3)
29.5
(−1.4)
35.8
(2.1)
45.5
(7.5)
55.0
(12.8)
64.4
(18.0)
70.1
(21.2)
68.9
(20.5)
62.3
(16.8)
51.4
(10.8)
42.0
(5.6)
33.8
(1.0)
48.9
(9.4)
Record low °F (°C) −6
(−21)
−15
(−26)
3
(−16)
12
(−11)
32
(0)
44
(7)
52
(11)
50
(10)
39
(4)
28
(−2)
5
(−15)
−13
(−25)
−15
(−26)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.64
(92)
3.19
(81)
4.29
(109)
4.09
(104)
3.96
(101)
4.54
(115)
4.60
(117)
4.56
(116)
4.31
(109)
4.38
(111)
3.58
(91)
4.38
(111)
49.52
(1,258)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 8.8
(22)
10.1
(26)
5.0
(13)
0.4
(1.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.5
(1.3)
4.9
(12)
29.8
(76)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.8 10.0 11.1 11.4 11.5 11.2 10.5 10.0 8.8 9.5 9.2 11.4 125.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.7 3.2 2.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.1 11.4
Source: NOAA [32] [33]
Climate data for Newark International Airport, NJ (1991-2020 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 74
(23)
80
(27)
89
(32)
97
(36)
99
(37)
103
(39)
108
(42)
105
(41)
105
(41)
96
(36)
85
(29)
76
(24)
108
(42)
Average high °F (°C) 40.0
(4.4)
43.0
(6.1)
50.9
(10.5)
62.6
(17.0)
72.6
(22.6)
81.8
(27.7)
86.9
(30.5)
84.7
(29.3)
77.7
(25.4)
66.0
(18.9)
54.9
(12.7)
44.8
(7.1)
63.8
(17.7)
Daily mean °F (°C) 32.8
(0.4)
35.1
(1.7)
42.5
(5.8)
53.3
(11.8)
63.3
(17.4)
72.7
(22.6)
78.2
(25.7)
76.4
(24.7)
69.2
(20.7)
57.5
(14.2)
47.0
(8.3)
38.0
(3.3)
55.5
(13.1)
Average low °F (°C) 25.5
(−3.6)
27.2
(−2.7)
34.2
(1.2)
44.1
(6.7)
53.9
(12.2)
63.6
(17.6)
69.4
(20.8)
68.0
(20.0)
60.7
(15.9)
49.0
(9.4)
39.0
(3.9)
31.2
(−0.4)
47.2
(8.4)
Record low °F (°C) −8
(−22)
−14
(−26)
6
(−14)
16
(−9)
33
(1)
41
(5)
51
(11)
45
(7)
35
(2)
25
(−4)
12
(−11)
−8
(−22)
−14
(−26)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.42
(87)
2.98
(76)
4.13
(105)
3.87
(98)
3.97
(101)
4.34
(110)
4.66
(118)
4.15
(105)
3.82
(97)
3.79
(96)
3.33
(85)
4.14
(105)
46.60
(1,184)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 9.1
(23)
10.1
(26)
5.6
(14)
0.5
(1.3)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
0.6
(1.5)
5.4
(14)
31.5
(80)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.6 10.0 10.9 11.5 11.4 10.9 10.0 9.8 8.7 9.4 8.8 11.1 123.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.6 3.8 2.7 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.8 14.5
Source: NOAA [34] [35]


Time series plot for Central Park, 1869–present

See or edit raw graph data.

Notes

  1. ^ Mid-latitude temperate maritime climate
  2. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of July 1999 equalled the mean temperature of July 1825. [17]
  3. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of 1836 was 47.2 °F (8.4 °C), beating the record from 1888. Additionally, 1837 also beat 1888, with a mean temperature of 49.2 °F (9.6 °C) [17]
  4. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of summer 1837 was 67.5 °F (19.7 °C), beating the record from summer 1903. Additionally, the summers of 1836 and 1839 also beat 1903, with mean temperatures of 67.7 °F (19.8 °C) and 69.1 °F (20.6 °C) respectively. [17]
  5. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of autumn 1836 was 49.5 °F (9.7 °C), beating the record from autumn 1871. Additionally, the autumn of 1823 also beat 1871, with a mean temperature of 51.3 °F (10.7 °C). [17]
  6. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of winter 1867–1868 was 25.5 °F (−3.6 °C), beating the record from winter 1917–1918. [17]
  7. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of January 1857 was 19.6 °F (−6.9 °C), beating the record from January 1918 as well as being the coldest month of any kind ever recorded. [17]
  8. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of May 1917 was equalled by May 1850. [17]
  9. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of June 1836 was 62.2 °F (16.8 °C), beating the record from June 1903. The mean temperature of June 1903 was also beaten by June 1839, with a mean temperature of 63.3 °F (17.4 °C). [17]
  10. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of July 1837 was 69.4 °F (20.8 °C), beating the record from July 1888. [17]
  11. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of August 1836 was 67.8 °F (19.9 °C), beating the record from August 1927. The mean temperature of August 1927 was also beaten by August 1866, with a mean temperature of 68.4 °F (20.2 °C). The mean temperature of August 1927 was also equalled by August 1837. [17]
  12. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of September 1835 was 60.6 °F (15.9 °C), beating the record from September 1871. [17]
  13. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of October 1836 was 45.8 °F (7.7 °C), beating the record from October 1888. [17]
  14. ^ Before official records began, the mean temperature of December 1831 was 22.3 °F (−5.4 °C), beating the record from December 1876. [17]

References

  1. ^ Peel, M.C.; Finlayson, B.L. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on January 13, 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  2. ^ "Station Data Inventory, Access & History". NOAA. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  3. ^ "Warmest and Coldest Days at Central Park (1869 to Present)" (PDF). NOAA. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  4. ^ "All-Time Extremes Central Park, NY (1869 to Present)" (PDF). NOAA. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
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