From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Clouds over Dubai in winter

Dubai features a tropical, [1] hot arid climate. Dubai has two seasons – winter and summer. Rainfall has been increasing over the past few decades in the city accumulating to more than 130 mm (5.12 in) per year.

Seasons

Summer

Summer in Dubai begins around the last week of April and ends around the first week of October. This period is characterized by extremely hot weather, hot winds and high humidity. Due to the city's close proximity to the sea, the temperatures in Dubai are slightly milder in summer in comparison to other Gulf cities such as Kuwait City and Riyadh. However, this means the city has high humidity which can make the weather extremely unpleasant in summer. Rainfall is scarce during the summer months, but the windy conditions ensure there are frequent dust storms. Temperatures regularly rise above 38 °C (100 °F) during this period and fall to around 26 °C (79 °F) overnight. The highest temperature recorded in Dubai is 49.0 °C (120 °F), reached in July 2023. [2]

Winter

Winter in Dubai begins around the last week of October and lasts until the middle of April. Most of the precipitation takes place during this season. Strong thunderstorms are not uncommon in the city during this period, these are accompanied by strong north-westerly winds and lower temperatures. The average daytime high during January, the coolest month, is around 22 °C (72 °F) with overnight lows of 12 °C (54 °F). The lowest recorded temperature in Dubai is 5 °C (41 °F), reached on early mornings from 10 to 12 January 2021. [3]

An urban heat island effect does exert an effect on Dubai as well, for example during the winter months when temperatures regularly fall to around 15 °C (59 °F) and lower in the outskirts of the city and its suburbs, the temperature in Central Dubai rarely falls below 18 °C (64 °F). This can be clearly seen when comparing weather data from the city's two airports - Dubai International and Al Maktoum International Airport. In the summer however, the opposite is true with average highs to be reaching about 43 °C (109 °F) in the suburbs and 38 °C (100 °F) in Central Dubai.

Classifications

Dubai Climate according to major climate systems
Climatic scheme Initials Description
Köppen system [4] [5] [6] BWh Hot desert climate [a]
Trewartha system [7] BWh Desert climate
Alisov system [8] Tropical climate [b]
Strahler system [9] Dry tropical climate
Thornthwaite system [10]
E A'
Arid and megathermal
Neef system [11] [12] Dry climate of trade winds

Climate data

Climate data for Dubai(Jebel Ali) (maximum records from both Jebel Ali and Intl airport)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.8
(89.2)
37.5
(99.5)
41.3
(106.3)
43.5
(110.3)
47.1
(116.8)
47.9
(118.2)
49.0
(120.2)
48.8
(119.8)
46.1
(115.0)
42.4
(108.3)
38.0
(100.4)
33.2
(91.8)
49.0
(120.2)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 22.8
(73.0)
24.9
(76.8)
27.8
(82.0)
33.9
(93.0)
37.6
(99.7)
39.5
(103.1)
40.9
(105.6)
41.3
(106.3)
39.0
(102.2)
34.9
(94.8)
29.2
(84.6)
24.7
(76.5)
33.0
(91.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.9
(62.4)
19.2
(66.6)
21.8
(71.2)
26.7
(80.1)
30.4
(86.7)
33.2
(91.8)
35.0
(95.0)
35.9
(96.6)
32.8
(91.0)
28.4
(83.1)
23.5
(74.3)
18.5
(65.3)
26.9
(80.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 11.2
(52.2)
13.4
(56.1)
16.3
(61.3)
19.5
(67.1)
23.2
(73.8)
26.9
(80.4)
30.0
(86.0)
30.4
(86.7)
26.6
(79.9)
22.0
(71.6)
17.8
(64.0)
13.2
(55.8)
20.9
(69.6)
Record low °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
3.9
(39.0)
7.0
(44.6)
10.3
(50.5)
14.5
(58.1)
17.6
(63.7)
23.8
(74.8)
23.6
(74.5)
16.5
(61.7)
12.8
(55.0)
8.2
(46.8)
4.0
(39.2)
1.5
(34.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.8
(0.74)
25.0
(0.98)
22.1
(0.87)
7.2
(0.28)
0.4
(0.02)
0.2
(0.01)
0.8
(0.03)
0.2
(0.01)
0.0
(0.0)
1.1
(0.04)
2.7
(0.11)
16.2
(0.64)
94.7
(3.73)
Average precipitation days 5.5 4.7 5.8 2.6 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.2 1.3 3.8 25.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 251 241 270 306 350 345 332 326 309 307 279 254 3,570
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.1 8.6 8.7 10.2 11.3 11.5 10.7 10.5 10.3 9.9 9.3 8.2 9.8
Source 1: Dubai Meteorological Office [13]
Source 2: NOAA [14] climatebase.ru (extremes) [15]
Climate data for Dubai International Airport 1991-2020 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 24.4
(75.9)
26.1
(79.0)
28.9
(84.0)
33.7
(92.7)
38.2
(100.8)
40.3
(104.5)
41.5
(106.7)
41.9
(107.4)
39.5
(103.1)
35.9
(96.6)
30.7
(87.3)
26.5
(79.7)
34.0
(93.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
21.2
(70.2)
23.6
(74.5)
27.8
(82.0)
31.9
(89.4)
34.0
(93.2)
35.8
(96.4)
35.9
(96.6)
33.6
(92.5)
30.3
(86.5)
25.9
(78.6)
21.9
(71.4)
28.5
(83.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 15.3
(59.5)
16.4
(61.5)
18.6
(65.5)
22.3
(72.1)
26.1
(79.0)
28.6
(83.5)
31.2
(88.2)
31.5
(88.7)
28.9
(84.0)
25.4
(77.7)
21.1
(70.0)
17.3
(63.1)
23.6
(74.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20.8
(0.82)
9.9
(0.39)
21.7
(0.85)
3.3
(0.13)
0.1
(0.00)
0.02
(0.00)
1.1
(0.04)
0.003
(0.00)
0.04
(0.00)
1.5
(0.06)
5.9
(0.23)
14.8
(0.58)
79.163
(3.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.8 2.4 3.4 1.5 1 0 2 0 1 2 1.9 3.4 21.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 253.1 250.8 288 315.6 350 344.5 340.3 333.9 307.8 300 268.1 256.9 3,609
Source: NOAA [14]
Climate data for Dubai
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 20.9
(69.6)
20.6
(69.1)
22.3
(72.1)
25.0
(77.0)
28.5
(83.3)
30.7
(87.2)
32.2
(90.0)
32.8
(91.0)
31.9
(89.4)
29.7
(85.5)
27.1
(80.8)
23.3
(74.0)
27.1
(80.8)
Average Ultraviolet index 6 8 10 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 8 6 5 9.2
Source #1: seatemperature.org [16]
Source #2: Weather Atlas [17]

Seasonal climate

The climate of Dubai is warm and sunny due to its position near the line of the Tropic of Cancer. [18] During the winter season it has an average daytime temperature of 25 °C (77 °F). Nighttime temperatures near the coastline range between 12 °C (54 °F) to 15 °C (59 °F), while in the desert they are 5 °C (41 °F) with the nights being relatively cool throughout the year. Near coastal areas humidity averages between 50% and 60%. In the summer, the weather in Dubai is very hot and humid, with temperatures exceeding 43 °C (109 °F) mainly in the months of July and August. The sea temperature could also reach 37 °C (99 °F), with humidity averaging over 90%. [18] Rainfall in Dubai is infrequent and does not last for a long period. It mostly rains during the winter period between November and March in the form of short downpours and an occasional thunderstorm. On average, rain falls only 25 days a year. [13]

February is the wettest month in Dubai with an average of 35 mm (1.4 in) of rain. [19] The weather in Dubai is extremely dry in the month of June with little or no rain; however, heavy rain with thunderstorm can unexpectedly fall on some days in June, despite it being the driest month in Dubai, with an example being June 21, 2019. [20] [19] March and December also record some amount of rainfall. The rainfall during January, April, July, October and November are about average while the amount of rain in May, August and September are comparatively lower. [19] The hottest months are July and August with the average high temperatures exceeding 43 °C (109 °F). January is the coolest month with the highs of about 24 °C (75 °F) and lows of about 16 °C (61 °F). Dubai tends to be extremely hot and humid in the months of July and August, with temperatures hitting around 45 °C (113 °F), and with lows of barely less than 30 °C (86 °F), making it the most unpleasant time to visit Dubai. During the months of May, June, September, and October, temperatures are hot, but rather quite bearable, with average highs of no more than 41 °C (106 °F) and with lows of about 27 °C (81 °F) on average, making it an ideal time to visit the beach or swimming pool. [21] [22] [23]

Climatic conditions by month

Dubai
Climate chart ( explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
40
 
 
25
16
 
 
35
 
 
27
17
 
 
26
 
 
30
20
 
 
20
 
 
34
23
 
 
5
 
 
38
25
 
 
3
 
 
40
27
 
 
4
 
 
43
30
 
 
3
 
 
42
31
 
 
2
 
 
39
28
 
 
5
 
 
36
25
 
 
25
 
 
32
21
 
 
30
 
 
27
18
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [24]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.6
 
 
77
61
 
 
1.4
 
 
81
63
 
 
1
 
 
86
68
 
 
0.8
 
 
93
73
 
 
0.2
 
 
100
77
 
 
0.1
 
 
104
81
 
 
0.2
 
 
109
86
 
 
0.1
 
 
108
88
 
 
0.1
 
 
102
82
 
 
0.2
 
 
97
77
 
 
1
 
 
90
70
 
 
1.2
 
 
81
64
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

In January the average maximum daytime temperature in Dubai is usually around 25 °C (77 °F), with average lows of about 16 °C (61 °F). The average rainfall is 10 mm (0.4 inches) of, with rain generally falling on just two days of the month. While the average sea temperature in January is 22 °C (72 °F). [25] January is also known for having days of unusual precipitation events . On January 15, 2008, 110 mm (4.3 in) of rain was recorded in 24 hours. [26]

In February the average maximum daytime temperature in Dubai is 27 °C (81 °F) with the average minimum nighttime temperature of 17 °C (63 °F). The average rainfall is 35 mm (1.4 in) during February. While the average sea temperature is 22 °C (72 °F). [25]

In March the average daytime temperature is 30 °C (86 °F), with moderate heat and humidity. The average minimum temperature in March is about 20 °C (68 °F). The average rainfall is 27 mm (1.1 in) during March, with rain generally falling on just four days of the month. While the average sea temperature is 23 °C (73 °F). [25] Strong thunderstorms often hit the city during this month, which if followed by an increase in temperatures.

In April the average daytime temperature is 34 °C (93 °F), with high heat and humidity. The average minimum temperature in April is about 23 °C (73 °F). The average rainfall is 8 mm (0.31 in) with rain generally falling on just two days of the month. The average sea temperature in April is 24 °C (75 °F). [25]

In May the average daytime temperature is 38 °C (100 °F), with very high heat and humidity. The average minimum temperature in May is about 26 °C (79 °F). The average rainfall is 1 mm (0.039 in) during May, with rain generally falling on just one day of the month. The average sea temperature is 28 °C (82 °F). [25]

In June the average daytime temperature is 40 °C (104 °F), with very high heat and humidity. The average minimum temperature in June is about 28 °C (82 °F). The average rainfall is less than 1 mm (0.039 in) during June, with a possible chance of rainfall that could be expected to fall on one of the days of the month. [27] The average sea temperature in June is 31 °C (88 °F). [25]

In July the average daytime temperature is extremely high 43 °C (109 °F) with extreme heat and humidity. The average minimum temperature in July is about 31 °C (88 °F). The average rainfall is about 1 mm (0.039 in) during July, with rain occasionally falling on just one of the days of the month. The average sea temperature in the month of July is 32 °C (90 °F). [25] Strong thunderstorms often quickly develop during these summer months and hit the outskirts of the city in areas such as DWC Airport, Al Lisaili, Lahbab, Al Khawaneej, Al Awir and Muhaisnah areas, especially during the late afternoon. [28]

In August the average daytime temperature is extremely high 43 °C (109 °F), with extreme heat and humidity. The average minimum temperature in August is about 32 °C (90 °F). The average rainfall is less than 1 mm (0.039 in) during August, with a possible chance of rainfall that could be expected to fall on one of the days of the month. [29] The average sea temperature in August is 33 °C (91 °F). [25]

In September the average daytime temperature is 39 °C (102 °F), with very high heat and humidity. The average minimum temperature in September is 28 °C (82 °F). There is very little chance of any rainfall during September. Average sea temperature in September is 32 °C (90 °F). [25]

In October the average daytime temperature is 36 °C (97 °F), with high heat and humidity. The average minimum temperature in October is 25 °C (77 °F). The average sea temperature around Dubai Airport in October is 30 °C (86 °F). [25]

In November the average daytime temperature is 31 °C (88 °F), with moderate heat and humidity. The average minimum temperature in November is 21 °C (70 °F). On average only 3 mm (0.12 in) of rainfall may occur in November. Average sea temperature in November is 28 °C (82 °F). [25]

In December the average daytime temperature is 27 °C (81 °F), cool to warm with high humidity. The average minimum temperature in December is 18 °C (64 °F). The average rainfall during the month is 15 mm (0.59 in). With rain generally falling on just 2 days of the month. The average sea temperature in December is 25 °C (77 °F). [25]

Sandstorms and extreme events

During the summer season, a low pressure area develops over Dubai forcing strong north-westerly winds to blow from Saudi Arabia. These winds, also known as Shamal (north) in Arabic, become gusty and unpredictable on reaching Dubai, lifting up desert sand and reducing visibility. The sandstorms may last for several days; notable sandstorms and extreme weather events that hit Dubai during the last few years include:

  • On April 18, 2008, a severe sandstorm hit Dubai and reduced visibility to 1,500 meters. [30]
  • On March 10, 2009, a moderate sandstorm reached Dubai which lowered down the visibility and temperature. [31]
  • On March 2, 2010, Strong winds caused sandstorms in Dubai and other regions of United Arab Emirates. [32]
  • On January 28, 2011, a sandstorm hit Dubai for a short time. [33]
  • On February 26, 2012, a strong sandstorm hit Dubai and other parts of the country. [34]
  • On April 2, 2015, a very strong sandstorm hit Dubai and other parts of the country. It started to clear out closer to the evening. In some areas visibility use reduced to 500 metres. [35]
  • On March 1, 2019, a strong sandstorm hit Dubai along with very strong winds after heavy rainfall, bringing temperatures down by 10 °C (50 °F). [36]
  • On June 21, 2019, after scorching hot temperatures of about 49 °C (120 °F) in the afternoon, the weather broke down into a strong sandstorm, which eventually caused thunderstorms to rumble in parts of Dubai along with heavy rain, causing temperatures to drop sharply to about 32 °C (90 °F). This is one of the rarest rainfall to ever occur in Dubai in the month of June. [37] [38]
  • From January 7 to around January 12, 2020, record-breaking rain hit Dubai and other regions of the UAE. The incessant storms brought strong winds and hailstorms and brought down temperatures severely. Unusually heavy rain hit Dubai, with rainfall reaching 150 mm/hour for 2.5 hours, according to preliminary reports, the storms also flooded various regions of the emirate, including the Dubai Airport, leading to the cancellation of most flights. [39]
  • A cold wave hit the UAE from January 6 to 12, 2021. Temperatures dipped in Dubai as well. In the city temperatures dipped to 8 °C (46 °F) , and in the outskirts to 5 °C (41 °F). [3]
  • On July 17, 2021, dust and sandstorm hit Dubai followed by heavy rain. [40]
  • From December 31, 2021 to January 2, 2022, heavy rainfall hit Dubai, with most areas of the city receiving over 60 millimeters of rainfall in two days time and reaching to even 140 millimeters in various areas of the city. [41]
  • From January 21 to 24, 2022, a minor cold wave hit Dubai accompanied by strong and cool winds, with day time temperatures settling around 17 °C (63 °F) and falling to 10 °C (50 °F) at dawn in the city and to 8 °C (46 °F) in the outskirts. [42]
  • From July 26 to 28, 2022, heavy rainfall lashed in Dubai along with other emirates including Sharjah, Ras al Khaimah and Fujairah. Temperatures rapidly dipped from 43 °C (109 °F) to 26 °C (79 °F). Large floods occurred in most areas due to the intense rain, affecting residents. [43] [44]
  • On August 14, 2022, a severe sandstorm hit Dubai and other emirates, reducing visibility to 500 meters. [45] [46]
  • From January 25 to 27 2023, record breaking rainfall hit Dubai, with a 100mm of rain falling in the span of just 3 days, further temperatures stayed between 18 °C and 9 °C for 3 days. [47] [48]
  • On March 21, 2023, a severe thunderstorm hit Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah and the Northern Emirates causing temperatures to drop to between 12 °C (54 °F) and 17 °C (63 °F) [49]
  • April 2023 was notoriously cool in Dubai, with the 40 °C (104 °F) benchmark not being reached the whole month, the first time since records began.
  • On the morning of 8 May , temperature fell to 17 °C (63 °F) marking the coldest May temperature in decades.
  • On June 2, 2023, Dubai has marked another minimum record with strong wind gusts reaching 40 km/h (25 mph) reducing the outdoor maximum temperature to 35 °C (95 °F) in the afternoon instead of the usual average high of 40 °C (104 °F) on the same day. The following day, on the early morning of June 3, 2023, temperatures fell down to 24 °C (75 °F) in the city and 21 °C (70 °F) in the outskirts, marking another coldest June temperature in decades.
  • On July 15 and 16, 2023, Dubai marked the hottest temperatures ever recorded where it reached 49 °C (120 °F) in the afternoon, and with the highest low temperature of 37 °C (99 °F) at night, this has been the hottest recorded temperature for decades. [2]
  • Though Dubai is located in a tropical area, the city and its suburbs were never hit by a depression or cyclonic storm in its past 1000 years due to its geomorphological location; however, with the shift in climate patterns and climate change, this could soon change.[ citation needed]

Notes

  1. ^ Also called tropical and subtropical desert climate
  2. ^ Dry tropical climate

References

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  49. ^ "UAE weather: Rain hits Dubai, Sharjah and Northern Emirates". 21 March 2023. Retrieved 2023-04-06.

External links

Adaptation Plan] – Emirates 24/7