Caput Mundi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rome, the imperial capital at the height of the territorial expansion

Caput Mundi is a Latin phrase used to describe a global city as the capital of the world. Some major cities since the ancient times have been described as the Caput Mundi, which include Rome, Jerusalem, and then Constantinople (today's Istanbul). Other important cities to have been called as the "Novum Caput Mundi" (New Capital of the world) after the modern period include Paris, London, New York City, and Washington, D.C.



Via dei Fori Imperiali, Via della Conciliazione and Via del Corso. The term First Rome is used to refer to the "Rome of the emperors", Second Rome refers to the Rome of the Popes, and third Rome refers to the Rome of the people (as capital city of Italy). [1]

Roma Caput Mundi is a Latin phrase taken to mean " Rome capital of the world" and "Roma capitale del mondo" in Italian (literally: "head of the world"; [2] see capital, capitol). It originates out of a classical European understanding of the known world: Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia. The influence of Rome in the ancient world began to grow around the 2nd century BC as the Republic expanded across Southern Europe and North Africa. For the next five centuries, Rome governed much of the known world (of traditional Greco-Roman geography) and served as the world’s largest city during that period. The cultural influence of the local language of Rome ( Latin) as well as Roman art, architecture, law, religion, and philosophy was significant. The Imperial city of Rome adopted as its nickname Caput Mundi, attributing this to its perception of an enduring power of Ancient Rome and the Roman Catholic Church. [3] [4] [5] Today it still remains one of the most visited cities in the world.


Map of the Holy Land, "the first non-Ptolemaic map of a definite country". [6] Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the octagonal Dome of the Rock stands left of King Solomon's Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Because of its religious, historical, and political significance, Jerusalem has been both called Caput Mundi and Umbilicus Mundi. It has been an important territory in the life of Jesus and Abrahamic prophets. The city still remains an important spiritual and a politically controversial site to the followers of Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Baháʼí Faith. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]


A view of Levent, one of the main business districts in Istanbul and home to the city's tallest buildings

Constantinople, also known as Eastern Rome or the New Rome, was built as the second Caput Mundi by Emperor Constantine in 330 AD, the first Roman Emperor to openly convert to Christianity. [12] By 500 AD, Constantinople had somewhere between 400,000 and 500,000 people, edging out its predecessor, Rome, as the world's largest city. It served as an imperial capital for almost 16 centuries. During much of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was the largest city in Europe. [13]

The Byzantine Empire lasted for over a thousand years with the center always at Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was centered in the capitals of Nicaea, Trebizond, Arta and Thessaloniki. The city was seen as the "Capital of the World" because of its prime trading position in the center of the medieval world. This privileged position continued after its Islamic conquest, even as the capital of the Ottoman Empire. The Patriarch of Constantinople has been designated Ecumenical Patriarch since the sixth century, and has come to be regarded as the leader of the today 300 million Orthodox Christians. [14] [15] [16]

Today, the city's name is Istanbul, based in Turkey. It is a megacity of 15 million people and the economic and cultural centre of Turkey, but not the capital, which is Ankara. Istanbul is one of the largest cities in the world.


Cityscape of Paris

Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, gastronomy, science, and the arts, and has been referred to in some sources as the capital of the world. [17] [18] [19]

Today, Paris remains one of the world's leading business, financial, and cultural centres, and its influence in politics, education, technology, entertainment, media, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as a major global city.

Greater Paris, comprising Paris and its three surrounding departments, received 38 million visitors in 2019, a record, measured by hotel arrivals. [20] In 2018, measured by the Euromonitor Global Cities Destination Index, Paris was the second-busiest airline destination in the world, with 19.10 million visitors, behind Bangkok (22.78 million) and ahead of London (19.09 million). [21] The city's top cultural attraction in 2018 was the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris (13 million visitors), followed by the Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (11 million visitors), followed by the Louvre (9.6 million visitors); the Eiffel Tower (6.1 million visitors); the Centre Pompidou (3.5 million visitors); and the Musée d'Orsay (3.3 million visitors). [20]

Paris is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by international airports, the busiest being Paris–Charles de Gaulle (second busiest airport in Europe). [22] [23] In terms of cargo traffic, the airport is the eleventh busiest in the world and the busiest in Europe, handling 2,102,268 metric tonnes of cargo in 2019. [24] Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily; [25] it is the second-busiest metro system in Europe after the Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th-busiest railway station in the world, but the busiest located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. [26]

In the academic year 2004–2005, the Paris Region's 17 public universities, with its 359,749 registered students, [27] comprised the largest concentration of university students in Europe. Paris also hosts four of the top ten business schools in the world, including INSEAD, ESSEC, HEC and ESCP Europe.

Paris has one of the largest city GDPs in the world. [28] It ranks as the first city in Europe (and third worldwide) by the number of companies classified in Fortune's Fortune Global 500. [29] Paris produced €738 billion (or US$882 billion at market exchange rates) or around 1/3 of the economy of France in 2018. [30] The PIB per inhabitant of the region was €60,100 (or $71,900 at market exchange rates), the highest in France. While the economy of the Paris metropolitan area — the largest in Europe with London—generates around 1/3 of France's GDP or almost $1.0 trillion. Paris has been ranked as the 2nd most attractive global city in the world in 2019 by KPMG. [31] La Défense, Paris's Central Business District, was ranked by Ernst & Young in 2017 as the leading business district in continental Europe, and fourth in the world. [32] The OECD is headquartered in Paris, the nation's financial capital.

In 2018 the GDP of the Paris Region was the largest in Europe, ahead of Nordrhein-Westfalen in Germany. The GDP per inhabitant was the 4th highest in Europe, after Luxembourg, Brussels, and Hamburg. [30] [33]

In 2018, Paris was the most expensive city in the world, with Singapore and Hong Kong. [34]


Cityscape of London

The former capital of the British Empire, the largest empire in history, [35] and current capital and largest city of the United Kingdom, is London, which had been a part of the Roman Empire and has been a major settlement since the epoch of Ancient Rome, and once known as Londinium.

London is one of the world's major business, financial, and cultural centres, and exerts influence on its politics, education, technology, entertainment, media, fashion, and the arts all contributing to its status as a major global city. In addition, London in time and on maps is on the Prime Meridian, running directly through Greenwich (also known as the Greenwich Meridian), with its time zone as GMT+0 ( UTC+0). The decision made at the International Meridian Conference was due to the dominance of the British Empire and the influence of British India; for logistical reasons, and because the United Kingdom and London remain a major global influence, this position of the Prime Meridian remains. [36] Furthermore, London is the home to the British monarch, who is the official head of state of 15 Commonwealth realms and the Head of the Commonwealth, so the symbolical leader of the association of mostly former British territories, covering one quarter of Earth's surface and being home to 1/3 of its population.

London is one of the most visited cities as measured by international (non-British) arrivals [37] and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. [38] It is the leading investment destination, [39] [40] [41] [42] hosting more international retailers [43] [44] and ultra high-net-worth individuals [45] [46] than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. [47] According to the QS World University Rankings 2015/16, London has the greatest concentration of top class universities in the world, [48] and the city has even been called the educational capital of the world. [49] [50] It is home to world-class institutions such as Imperial College London in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and the London School of Economics in economics, finance, and business. [51] [52] [53]

In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. [54] The situation of numerous iconic landmarks, such as Big Ben, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, the Houses of Parliament, and Buckingham Palace, as well as modern architecture such as the Gherkin, The Shard, the London Eye, and the O2, drew approximately 16.7 million international tourists in 2013, establishing London as the most visited city in the world for international tourists. [55] The city is also home to the world's largest library and botanical garden.

London was described as the capital of the "empire on which the sun never sets". It has presently the largest foreign-born population of any city and has been ranked as the world's capital city in terms of culture, business, technological readiness, and overall economic clout, [56] as well as attracting the most foreign investment of any global city. [57]

New York City

New York City, the most populous city in the United States, is sometimes described by the Latin phrase "Novum Caput Mundi" ("New Capital of the World"); or more commonly by the English phrase, Capital of the World, [58] [59] [60] primarily in reference to Manhattan, the core borough often referred to as simply The City by locals. [61] [62] Described as the most powerful global city, [63] New York exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment, and the city's fast pace [64] [65] [66] has inspired the term New York minute. [67] Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, [68] New York is an important center for international diplomacy [69] and has been described as the cultural, media, financial, and entertainment capital of the world, [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] despite not being the modern governmental capital of the United States or even of New York State (which is Albany). As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. [76] LGBT travel guide Queer in the World states, "The fabulosity of Gay New York is unrivaled on Earth, and queer culture seeps into every corner of its five boroughs". [77] In 2019, New York was voted the greatest city in the world per a survey of over 30,000 people from 48 cities worldwide, citing the city's cultural diversity. [78]

Numerous national and international private corporations have headquarters in New York. Anchored by Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, New York has been called the world's principal financial center. [79] [80] as well as most economically powerful city [81] [74] [82] [83] [84] [85] Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ, the world's two largest stock exchanges per total market capitalization of their listed companies. [86] The New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, is defined by both the Metropolitan Statistical Area (19.9 million residents in 2013) [87] and the Combined Statistical Area (23.5 million residents in 2013). [88] In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of nearly US$1.39 trillion, [89] while in 2012, the CSA [90] generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion, both ranking first nationally by a wide margin and behind the GDP of only twelve nations and eleven nations, respectively. [91]

New York is home to many prestigious higher education institutions with the most notable being Columbia University. According to Academic Ranking of World Universities, New York has, on average, the best higher education institutions of any global city. [92]

New York has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists. [93] [94] Tourism is vital to New York, and many districts and landmarks in New York have become well known, as the city received a record high 66.6 million tourists in 2019. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. [95] [96] [97] The Empire State Building has become the global standard of reference to describe the height and length of other structures. [98] Times Square, at the hub of the Broadway theater district, is nicknamed The Crossroads of the World, [99] The Center of the Universe, [100] and the "heart of the world". [101]

Washington, D.C.

The capital of the United States and the seat of the U.S. federal government, Washington, D.C., also holds the headquarters of important international organizations including the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Organization of American States. The signing of the North Atlantic Treaty took place in Washington; [102] [103] this treaty established NATO, which took part in the Cold War, and by its end, Washington was dubbed by The Washington Post as the capital of the world. [104]

See also


  1. ^ Rome Seminar Archived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Dictionary of Latin Phrases and Proverbs: C". Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  3. ^ Beretta, Silvio (2017). Understanding China Today: An Exploration of Politics, Economics, Society, and International Relations. Springer. p. 320. ISBN  9783319296258.
  4. ^ B. Bahr, Ann Marie (2009). Christianity: Religions of the Wold. Infobase Publishing. p. 139. ISBN  9781438106397.
  5. ^ R. D'Agostino, Peter (2005). Rome in America: Transnational Catholic Ideology from the Risorgimento to Fascism. Univ of North Carolina Press. ISBN  9780807863411.
  6. ^ Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (1889). Facsimile-atlas to the Early History of Cartography: With Reproductions of the Most Important Maps Printed in the XV and XVI Centuries. Kraus. pp. 51, 64.
  7. ^ Wolf, Beat (2010). Jerusalem und Rom, Mitte, Nabel - Zentrum, Haupt: Die Metaphern "Umbilicus mundi" und "Caput mundi" in den Weltbildern der Antike und des Abendlands bis in die Zeit der Ebstorfer Weltkarte. ISBN  9783039111619.
  8. ^ Viterbo), Cardinal Egidio (da (1992). "Giles of Viterbo OSA: Letters as Augustinian general, 1506-1517".
  9. ^ Wisch, Barbara (1986). Italian Renaissance Art: Selections from the Piero Corsini Gallery. ISBN  9780911209341.
  10. ^ Den Hartog, E. (1992). Romanesque Architecture and Sculpture in the Meuse Valley. ISBN  9789074252041.
  11. ^ Erdeljan, Jelena (21 June 2017). Chosen Places: Constructing New Jerusalems in Slavia Orthodoxa. ISBN  9789004345799.
  12. ^ Mango, Cyril (1991). "Constantinople". In Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 508–512. ISBN  0-19-504652-8.
  13. ^ Pounds, Norman John Greville. An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500–1840, p. 124. CUP Archive, 1979. ISBN  0-521-22379-2.
  14. ^ Dona J. Stewart (2013). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN  978-0-415-78243-2. Bartholomew I, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, spiritual leader of 300 million Orthodox Christians worldwide.
  15. ^ W. El-Ansary; D. Linnan (26 November 2010). Muslim and Christian Understanding: Theory and Application of "A Common Word". Springer. p. 82. ISBN  978-0-230-11440-1. Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew is the 270th Archbishop to the 2,000-year-old Church of Constantinople (Istanbul), “first among equals” of Orthodox bishops worldwide, and spiritual leader to 300 million faithful.
  16. ^ Fairchild, Mary. "Christianity:Basics:Eastern Orthodox Church Denomination". Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  17. ^ Higonnet, Patrice (2009). Paris : Capital of the World. Harvard University Press. ISBN  978-0-674-03864-6. OCLC  958559052.
  18. ^ Hinnant, Lori. "'Today Paris Is The Capital Of The World'". Business Insider. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  19. ^ "The World's Best Cities". Best Cities. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  20. ^ a b "Tourism in Paris - Key Figures 2020". Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  21. ^ Rosen, Eric (4 September 2019). "The World's Most-Visited City Is Bangkok". Forbes. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  22. ^ "List: The world's 20 busiest airports (2017)". USA Today. Archived from the original on 25 June 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  23. ^ "ACI reveals the world's busiest passenger and cargo airports". Airport World. 9 April 2018. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  24. ^ "Statistiques annuelles". Union des aéroports Français. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  25. ^ "Métro2030". RATP (Paris metro operator). Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  26. ^ "The 51 busiest train stations in the world – all but 6 located in Japan". Japan Today. 6 February 2013. Archived from the original on 22 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  27. ^ Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Paris –Île-de-France (2006). "Paris Region : key figures 2006" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2006. Retrieved 4 July 2006.
  28. ^ The global geography of world cities, iied, 9 July 2020
  29. ^ 10 reasons to move to Paris La Défense, Official website of Paris La Défense
  30. ^ a b "Database - Regions - Eurostat".
  31. ^ Global Cities Investment Monitor 2019, KPMG, 2019
  32. ^ The attractiveness of world-class business districts: Paris La Défense vs. its global competitors, EY, November 2017
  33. ^ "Regional Economy of Ile-de-France" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  34. ^ "Classement.Singapour, Hong Kong, Paris : le trio des villes les plus chères du monde". Courrier International. 20 March 2019. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019..
  35. ^ Taagepera, Rein (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia" (PDF). International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 492–502. doi: 10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR  2600793. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  36. ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 24" (PDF). China Development Institute, Z/Yen Group. September 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  37. ^ "London tops ranking of destination cities". The Independent. London. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  38. ^ "Beijing to overtake London as world's largest aviation hub". Centre for Aviation. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  39. ^ "Global Cities Investment Monitor 2017" (PDF). KPMG. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  40. ^ "Global Cities Investment Monitor 2016" (PDF). KPMG. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  41. ^ "Global Investor Intentions Survey 2015". CBRE. Archived from the original on 23 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  42. ^ "London Top Target for Global Investors, Secondary Markets Gain Popularity". World Property Journal. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  43. ^ "Global Retail Report 2014". CBRE. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  44. ^ Bourke, Joanna (18 May 2015). "London retains title as world's most international shopping destination". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  45. ^ "The Wealth Report 2015". Knight Frank. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  46. ^ Bourke, Joanna (11 March 2015). "NYC Is No Longer the No. 1 City for the Super-Wealthy". Curbed. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  47. ^ "Number of international students in London continues to grow" (Press release). Greater London Authority. 20 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010.
  48. ^ "QS World University Rankings® 2015/16". Top Universities. 11 September 2015. Archived from the original on 14 September 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  49. ^ "London crowned 'education capital of the world' - Study International". Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  50. ^ "Mayor of London says city is 'education capital of the world' - London & Partners". 30 November 2016. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  51. ^ "Times Higher Education World University Rankings". 19 September 2018.
  52. ^ "Top Universities: Imperial College London".
  53. ^ "Top Universities: LSE". Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  54. ^ "IOC elects London as the Host City of the Games of the XXX Olympiad in 2012". International Olympic Committee. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
  55. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2017.{{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link)
  56. ^ "London Tops PwC's Cities of Opportunity Study of Global Centers of Business, Finance and Culture" (Press release). New York: PricewaterhouseCoopers. 19 May 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
  57. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2014.{{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link)
  58. ^ Sherman, Eugene J. "New York - Capital of the Modern World". Baruch College - Weissman Center for International Business. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  59. ^ Roberts, Sam (14 September 2017). "When the World Called for a Capital (Published 2017)". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  60. ^ "New York vs. London: Two Cities to Rule Them All". The Atlantic. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  61. ^ "About New York City". The City of New York. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  62. ^ Eugene J. Sherman. "FORWARD New York – Capital of the Modern World". The Weissman Center for International Business. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  63. ^ [1] Accessed June 18, 2022.
  64. ^ Kelsy Chauvin (15 March 2019). "15 Things NOT to Do in New York City". Fodor's. Retrieved 23 March 2019. There are more than 8.6 million citizens of New York, and they’re pretty much all in a hurry. They’re also shrewd, outspoken, and proudly able to survive in a metropolis that tends to punish the meek. The buzzing subway system alone is a symbol of how this city works: part ballet, part battlefield. Residents and visitors alike can see why New York is considered the greatest city in the world.
  65. ^ Poliak, Shira. "Adjusting To New York City". Sun Sentinel. Archived from the original on 3 December 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015. Additionally, the fast-paced lifestyle of New York City demands adjusting.
  66. ^ Stephen Miller (2016). Walking New York: Reflections of American Writers from Walt Whitman to Teju Cole. pp. 46, 50, 131. ISBN  978-0-8232-7425-3. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  67. ^ "Dictionary – Full Definition of NEW YORK MINUTE". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  68. ^ "United Nations Visitors Centre". United Nations. 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  69. ^ "NYC Mayor's Office for International Affairs". The City of New York. Archived from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  70. ^ "Consulate General of Iceland New York Culture". Consulate General of Iceland New York. Archived from the original on 5 February 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  71. ^ "Consulate of Latvia in New York". Consulate of Latvia. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  72. ^ "Introduction to Chapter 14: New York City (NYC) Culture". The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  73. ^ "New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 / edited by Leonard Wallock ; essays by Dore Ashton ... [et al.]". NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  74. ^ a b "Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S." Business Insider, Inc. 31 July 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2016. For instance, Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the highest economic production, and a fast-growing global financial hub, is far from matching or surpassing New York, the largest city in the U.S. and the economic and financial super center of the world.
  75. ^ "PAL sets introductory fares to New York". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  76. ^ Roberts, Sam (1 May 2016). "Listening to (and Saving) the World's Languages". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  77. ^ "". Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  78. ^ Will Gleason (11 March 2019). "Citing its diversity and culture, NYC was voted best city in the world in new global survey". TimeOut. Retrieved 19 May 2019. After compiling the thoughts of over 30,000 people, both from our NYC readership and half-a-world away, New York was voted the greatest city on the planet for 2019. In a hint as to why this happened, and why now, it also lead the categories of most diverse metropolis and best culture.
  79. ^ "GFCI 31 Rank - Long Finance". Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  80. ^ "New York widens lead over London as finance hub: Duff & Phelps". Thomson Reuters. 16 February 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  81. ^ Richard Florida (3 March 2015). "Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 25 March 2015. Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top.
  82. ^ "PAL sets introductory fares to New York". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  83. ^ Richard Florida (8 May 2012). "What Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City?". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  84. ^ John Glover (23 November 2014). "New York Boosts Lead on London as Leading Finance Center". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  85. ^ "GFCI 29 Rank - Long Finance". Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  86. ^ "2013 WFE Market Highlights" (PDF). World Federation of Exchanges. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  87. ^ "The 10 Largest Metro Areas on July 1, 2013" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  88. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 - Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  89. ^ "Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) of the United States in 2013, by metropolitan area (in billion current U.S. dollars)". Statista. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  90. ^ "Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas" (PDF). Executive Office of the President – Office of Management and Budget. p. 106. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  91. ^ "U.S. Metro Economies (note CSA 2012 GMP total includes sum of New York, Bridgeport, New Haven, Allentown, Trenton, Poughkeepsie, and Kingston MSA 2012 GMP values cited)" (PDF). IHS Global Insight, The United States Conference of Mayors, and The Council on Metro Economies and the New American City. November 2013. pp. 9 through 18 in Appendix Tables. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  92. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Archived from the original on 17 August 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  93. ^ Simon Kennedy (13 April 2014). "Beijing Breaks into Top Ten in Rankings by A.T. Kearney". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  94. ^ Michelle Kaske (12 March 2012). "New York City Tops Global Competitiveness, Economist Report Says". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  95. ^ DL Cade (27 December 2013). "Google Maps Out the Most Photographed Places in the World". PetaPixel. Archived from the original on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  96. ^ DL Cade (13 December 2013). "Most Instagrammed Locations and Cities of 2013 Revealed, as Well as Most-Liked Photo". PetaPixel. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  97. ^ Sean O'Neill (12 June 2011). "The 25 most photographed places on Earth". Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  98. ^ Multiple sources:
  99. ^ Allan Tannenbaum. "New York in the 70s: A Remembrance". The Digital Journalist. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  100. ^ Explore Manhattan Neighborhoods: The Center of the Universe (aka Times Square). Her Campus (22 March 2011). Retrieved on 1 May 2016.
  101. ^ Noah Remnick and Tatiana Schlossberg (24 August 2015). "New York Today:Transforming Times Square". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  102. ^ "North Atlantic Treaty". Truman Library. Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  103. ^ "NATO – Official text: The North Atlantic Treaty, 04-Apr. 1949". 9 December 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  104. ^ Broder, David S. "Nation's Capital in Eclipse as Pride and Power Slip Away", The Washington Post, 18 February 1990. Retrieved 18 October 2010. "In the days of the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and the creation of NATO, [Clark Clifford] said, we saved the world, and Washington became the capital of the world."