From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Acquisition of Twitter by Elon Musk
 
Initiator Elon Musk
Target Twitter, Inc.
Type All-cash full acquisition
Cost US$44 billion
InitiatedApril 14, 2022
CompletedOctober 28, 2022
Resulting entity X Corp.

Business magnate Elon Musk initiated an acquisition of American social media company Twitter, Inc. on April 14, 2022, and concluded it on October 28, 2022. Musk stated he intended to buy Twitter to build X, an "everything app" he had been developing since 2018 to mimic the Chinese app WeChat. [1] Musk had begun buying shares of the company in January 2022, becoming its largest shareholder by April with a 9.1 percent ownership stake. Twitter invited Musk to join its board of directors, an offer he initially accepted before declining. On April 14, Musk made an unsolicited offer to purchase the company, to which Twitter's board responded with a " poison pill" strategy to resist a hostile takeover before unanimously accepting Musk's buyout offer of $44 billion on April 25. Musk stated that he planned to introduce new features to the platform, make its algorithms open-source, combat spambot accounts, and promote free speech.

In July, Musk announced his intention to terminate the agreement, asserting that Twitter had breached their agreement by refusing to crack down on spambot accounts. The company filed a lawsuit against Musk in the Delaware Court of Chancery shortly thereafter, with a trial scheduled for the week of October 17. Weeks before the trial was set to begin, Musk reversed course, announcing that he would move forward with the acquisition. The deal was closed on October 28, with Musk immediately becoming Twitter's new owner and CEO. Twitter was taken private and merged into a new parent company named X Corp.

Musk promptly fired several top executives, including previous CEO Parag Agrawal. Musk has since proposed several reforms to Twitter and laid off half of the company's workforce. Hundreds of employees then resigned from the company after Musk issued an ultimatum demanding they commit to "extremely hardcore" work. Linda Yaccarino was appointed CEO of X Corp. In July 2023, the Twitter service was rebranded as X.

Reactions to the buyout were mixed, with praise for Musk's planned reforms and vision for the company, particularly his calls for greater free speech, but criticism over fears of a potential rise in misinformation and disinformation, harassment, and hate speech on the platform. Within the United States, conservatives have largely supported the acquisition, while many liberals and former Twitter employees have voiced concerns about Musk's intentions. Since becoming owner, Musk has faced backlash for his handling of the company and account suspensions, including the December 2022 suspensions of ten journalists.

Prelude

Background

Jack Dorsey, founder
Elon Musk communicated with Dorsey, Agrawal, and Taylor prior to proposing a buyout of Twitter Inc.

Business magnate Elon Musk published his first tweet on his personal Twitter account in June 2010, [2] and had more than 80 million followers by April 2022. [3] In 2017, in response to a tweet suggesting that he buy Twitter, Inc., Musk replied, "How much is it?" [4] On March 24, 2022, Musk began tweeting criticisms of Twitter, [5] polling his followers on whether the company adhered to the principle that "free speech is essential to a functioning democracy". [6] Days later, he discussed the future of social media with Twitter co-founder and former CEO Jack Dorsey and explored the possibility of joining Twitter's board of directors with private equity firm Silver Lake co-CEO Egon Durban. He relayed this idea to Twitter board chair Bret Taylor and CEO Parag Agrawal, proposing to either take the company private or start a rival social media platform. [7] Dorsey responded to Musk with a text message, saying he hoped Twitter could become open-sourced and that he had unsuccessfully pushed for Musk's induction into Twitter's board a year earlier, a move that had prompted his departure from his role as CEO. [8]

Early developments

Musk began purchasing Twitter stock on January 31, 2022. [5] On April 4, he announced that he had acquired 9.2 percent of the company's shares totaling $2.64 billion, [9] making him the company's largest shareholder. [10] Following the announcement, Twitter's stock experienced its largest intraday surge since the company's initial public offering (IPO) in 2013, rising by as much as 27 percent. [11] The next day, Twitter invited Musk to join the company's board, [12] which Musk accepted. [13] This had been recommended to the board by Twitter's Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee three days earlier, with some board members expressing concern about potential "adverse impacts on stockholder value". [7] The position would have prohibited Musk from going beyond a 14.9 percent ownership stake and limited his ability to speak publicly about the company. [14] [7] That day, Musk phoned Dorsey, who declined Musk's suggestion for him to remain on the board. [7]

On April 11, after publishing several tweets critical of the company, Musk announced he had decided not to join the board. [15] Instead, he informed Twitter that he intended to make an offer to take the company private. On April 12, Twitter's board met with lawyers and financial advisors to deliberate the ramifications of such a deal as well as their options, [7] while a company shareholder sued Musk for allegedly manipulating the company's stock price and violating Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) rules. [16]

Buyout offer

Takeover bid

Elon Musk Twitter logo, a stylized blue bird
@elonmusk

April 14, 2022 [17]

On April 14, Musk made an unsolicited and non-binding offer to Twitter to purchase the company for $43 billion, or $54.20 per share, and take it private. [18] Though the offer was made to company management, the bid was described as a hostile takeover attempt because of the implied threat to purchase the outstanding stock if management declined. [19] [20] The board responded that it would "carefully review the proposal". [21] After making the offer, Musk spent the night playing the video game Elden Ring to alleviate his stress. [22]

In a TED interview, Musk said he aimed to make Twitter a "platform for free speech around the globe", hailing free speech as a "societal imperative for a functioning democracy" and insisting that he had not made the offer to increase his wealth. [23] [24] Critics noted that he showed more interest in altering Twitter's moderation policies than in fighting government censorship. [25] According to The Washington Post, the banning of accounts such as The Babylon Bee had prompted Musk to initiate the acquisition. [26] The price of $54.20 per share is believed to be a reference to 420, a slang term in cannabis culture for marijuana consumption. [27]

On April 15, Twitter's board of directors announced a " poison pill" strategy which would allow shareholders to purchase additional stock in the event of a hostile takeover; the plan expired on April 14, 2023. [28] On April 17, Taylor was urged by Twitter's largest institutional shareholders to "seriously consider" the offer. [7] On April 20, Musk disclosed that he had secured financing provided by a group of banks led by Morgan Stanley, Bank of America, Barclays, MUFG, Société Générale, Mizuho Bank, and BNP Paribas, for a potential tender offer to acquire the company. [29] [30] The funding included $7 billion of senior secured bank loans; $6 billion in subordinated debt; $6.25 billion in bank loans to Musk personally, secured by $62.5 billion of his Tesla stock; $20 billion in cash equity from Musk, to be provided by sales of Tesla stock and other assets; and $7.1 billion in equity from 19 independent investors. [31] [32] [33]

The initially proposed $13 billion in money borrowed by Twitter was equivalent to seven times the company's 2022 projected operating cash flow; some banks found that multiple too risky and opted to participate only in the $12.5 billion margin loan to Musk. [34] The debt was estimated to cost Twitter approximately $1 billion in annual interest and fees. [29] Two days after announcing his bid, Musk registered three holding companies under the name "X Holdings" in preparation for his takeover. [35] Tesla shares fell 12 percent on the day after the acquisition was announced, amid smaller declines in the broader markets. Musk incurred a $21 billion paper loss that day. [36]

Acquisition announcement

On April 23, Musk informed Taylor that his offer was "best and final", urging him to accept in a letter sent the following day. [7] Multiple outlets subsequently reported that Twitter was in final negotiations to accept Musk's offer, with a deal expected to be reached by the next day, [37] [38] [39] though Reuters cautioned that the deal could still fall apart. [40] On April 25, Twitter shares rose by 5 percent following reports that Twitter was poised to accept Musk's offer. [41] Twitter advisors Goldman Sachs and JPMorgan Chase approved of the deal, deeming it fair from a financial perspective. [7] Twitter's board publicly and unanimously accepted the buyout offer for $44 billion, and Twitter was to become a private company once the transaction was completed sometime in 2022. [42] [43] Negotiations with Musk were led by the board's transaction committee, composed of Taylor, Martha Lane Fox, and Patrick Pichette. [44] The deal would require shareholder and regulatory approval before it could be finalized, [45] though analysts believed it was unlikely to be challenged by regulators. [46]

Musk was barred from disparaging the company or its employees when tweeting about the acquisition before the transaction closed. [47] The agreement also stipulated that if Musk failed to close the acquisition, he would be required to pay Twitter a $1 billion breakup fee. [48] [49] Agrawal was set to receive $39 million from the buyout, while Dorsey would receive $978 million. [50] Musk had privately selected a new CEO to replace Agrawal upon completion of the acquisition, [34] though he was expected to serve as interim CEO in the months after its completion. [51] Tesla's stock sank by more than $125 billion the next market day, causing Musk to lose about $30 billion of his net worth. [52] [53] Within three days after Twitter agreed to be acquired, Musk had sold $8.5 billion of his Tesla shares. [54]

After the acceptance was announced, Musk said that his first goal would be to make the algorithm that ranks tweets in the content feed open-sourced, in an effort to increase transparency. He has also stated that he intended to remove spambots and "authenticate all real humans", [55] suggesting that he might convert Twitter's San Francisco headquarters into a homeless shelter. [56] [57] Musk said he lacked confidence in Twitter's corporate management, [58] telling banks that he had considered reducing executive and board pay. [34] He published tweets critical of decisions made by Twitter executives such as Vijaya Gadde, [59] who was subsequently harassed by Twitter users using racist and sexist language. [60] [61] On April 28, Twitter told advertising agencies that their work would not be seen next to offensive material. [62] Musk also discussed with bankers with the ideas of cutting jobs and costs, encouraging influencers to be creative, and adding subscription services to Twitter. [63] [64]

On May 4, the Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom summoned Musk to discuss the effect of his buyout on free speech and "online harms". [65] Musk secured another $7.1 billion in funding the next day, including from Oracle Corporation co-founder Larry Ellison, Saudi prince Al Waleed bin Talal Al Saud, venture capital firms Andreessen Horowitz and Sequoia Capital, as well as sovereign wealth fund Qatar Holding. [66] [67] The equity infusion reduced his original $12.5 billion personal bank loan to $6.25 billion and his required cash equity contribution from $21 billion to just under $20 billion. [33] [68] On May 11, The Wall Street Journal reported that the SEC and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) had launched investigations into events leading to the acquisition. [69] The next day, Agrawal fired Twitter general manager Kayvon Beykpour and revenue product lead Bruce Falck. [70]

Attempted termination

Alleged hold

On May 13, Musk revealed that he had placed the deal "on hold" in the wake of reports that 5 percent of Twitter's daily active users were spam accounts, [71] causing Twitter shares to drop more than 10 percent. [72] Musk clarified that he remained committed to the acquisition, [73] and Agrawal stated he expected the deal to close. [74] In response to a May 16 Twitter thread in which Agrawal said an external review into the platform's users was impractical, Musk tweeted out a poop emoji. [75] The following day, Musk reiterated that the acquisition could not "move forward" until Twitter could prove the aforementioned reports false, [76] [77] urging the SEC to investigate Twitter's daily user numbers. [78] The same day, Twitter filed new documents with the SEC, including a detailed timeline of Musk's purchase, [7] and affirmed they would "enforce the merger agreement" regardless of Musk's actions. [79] On May 25, Musk abandoned plans to partially fund the deal through margin loans against Tesla stock, instead opting to pledge an additional $6.25 billion in equity financing. [80] [81] Dorsey departed Twitter's board the same day, [82] while Twitter investor William Heresniak filed a class-action lawsuit against Musk, alleging that he had violated corporate laws in California by manipulating the market. [83] The lawsuit further declared that Musk was not permitted by the acquisition contract to place the deal on hold, and that Musk's misleading statements had contributed to declining Twitter stock prices. [84] [85]

Former Twitter security chief Peiter Zatko claimed that the company had misled the public on its privacy and security woes.

On June 3, the acquisition was cleared by U.S. antitrust review. [86] In an email sent by Musk's attorney to Twitter three days later, Musk threatened to terminate his agreement with Twitter because the company had refused to give him data pertaining to its users. [87] [88] Twitter responded that they would continue to cooperate with Musk to ensure that the transaction was closed in accordance with their agreement. [89] On June 8, Twitter's board complied with Musk's demands, agreeing to provide him with a "firehose" data stream of tweets. [90] [91] A week later, the SEC asked Agrawal to provide information on how Twitter estimated its number of spam accounts, to which the company obliged; the SEC concluded its inquiry on July 27. [92] [93] Musk attended an all-hands meeting on June 16 to answer questions from Twitter employees, [94] discussing Twitter's content moderation policy, freedom of speech, potential layoffs, remote work, and "the cosmic nature of Twitter". [95] [96] [97] Musk also expressed his desire for Twitter to reach one billion active users, [98] and pledged his commitment to advertising as a source of revenue for Twitter. [99]

In a complaint filed by Whistleblower Aid with the SEC, U.S. Justice Department, and FTC on July 6, former Twitter security officer Peiter Zatko accused several Twitter executives, including Agrawal and certain board members, of making false or misleading statements about privacy, security, and content moderation on the platform in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 and SEC disclosure rules. These included misrepresentations to Musk made during the course of the acquisition bid, with the complaint specifically calling Agrawal's May 16 thread deceptive. [100] [101] [102] In a July 7 conference call, Twitter revealed that over one million spam accounts were removed daily, and reiterated that it was impossible to externally determine the exact number of these accounts as it would involve private user data. [103] That same day, The Washington Post reported that the deal was "in peril" amid a slowdown in discussions on funding. [104]

Attempted withdrawal by Musk

On July 8, Musk announced his intention to terminate the proposed acquisition, claiming in a regulatory filing that Twitter was in " material breach" of several parts of the agreement by refusing to comply with Musk's requests for spambot account data and dismissing high-ranking employees. [105] [106] In response, Taylor pledged to pursue legal action against Musk at the Delaware Court of Chancery with the goal of completing the acquisition, [107] [108] with the ensuing lawsuit once again overseen by the Twitter board's transaction committee. [44] Twitter's stock sank by 7 percent after the news, dropping by a further 11 percent the next day. [109] On July 10, Twitter hired the law firm Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz to represent its case, including "key lawyers" William Savitt and Leo Strine, [110] along with Potter Anderson & Corroon, Ballard Spahr, Kobre & Kim, and Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati. [111] Musk again employed the services of Quinn Emanuel Urquhart & Sullivan after previously doing so for Unsworth v. Musk and SEC v. Musk, [110] including his personal lawyer Alex Spiro, as well as Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom. [112]

Twitter formally launched its lawsuit against Musk at the Delaware Court of Chancery on July 12, [112] with Musk tweeting in response, "Oh the irony lol". [113] Twitter requested that the trial be held from September 19 through September 22, [114] before the deal's originally scheduled "drop dead" date on October 24. [115] Musk's legal team objected to this, asking for the trial to be held from February 13 through February 22, 2023. [116] On July 19, judge Kathaleen McCormick ruled that the trial would last for five days in October, [117] [118] with Twitter seeking an October 10 start date. [119] During its quarterly earnings investor call on July 22, Twitter cited the "chaos" caused by the proposal as the primary factor for its decline in revenue. [120] In a letter to McCormick on July 26, Musk's lawyers complained that Twitter had hindered them from commencing the discovery process and requested an October 17 start date, [119] which McCormick granted three days later with a duration of five days. [121]

In a tweet on August 6, Musk challenged Agrawal to a public debate on Twitter's spambot accounts, before polling his followers on whether they believed that less than 5 percent of Twitter accounts were "fake/spam". [122] On August 10, Musk sold 7.92 million Tesla shares worth a total of $6.9 billion as backup should he lose the lawsuit, despite previously stating he would no longer sell Tesla stock. [123] The next week, McCormick ordered Twitter to produce documents from Beykpour, which Musk's team had requested along with files from 22 other Twitter employees and 41 "custodians". [124] Shortly thereafter, Musk subpoenaed Dorsey. [125] Other businessmen and investors subpoenaed include Marc Andreessen, Ellison, David Sacks, and Joe Lonsdale, while Twitter and Musk also subpoenaed Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, JPMorgan Chase, Andreessen Horowitz, Sequoia Capital, Salesforce, Mastercard, and more. Sacks and Lonsdale were both irritated that they were being subpoenaed, with the former filing a failed motion to dismiss the subpoena. In total, lawyers for Twitter issued over 84 subpoenas, while Musk's lawyers issued more than 36. [111]

Facing increasing pressure from Musk, Twitter announced that it would combine its health team, tasked with preventing non-consensual nudity and child sexual exploitation on the platform, with its anti-spam team. [126] McCormick rejected much of Musk's team's "absurdly broad" request for data pertaining to all of Twitter's users, but ordered the company to produce data from 9,000 accounts it previously audit sampled. [127] Musk filed a "termination letter" with the SEC on August 29, citing Zatko's claims as evidence Twitter breached their contract, [128] [129] before asking McCormick to delay the trial by a few weeks. [130] McCormick rejected the request, [131] and Musk's team sent a third termination letter to Twitter. [132] On September 13, Zatko testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee, [133] [134] [135] while Twitter shareholders voted in favor of the acquisition. [136] [137] Musk privately offered to purchase Twitter at the reduced prices of $31 billion and $39.6 billion, both of which the company rejected. [138] [139]

Revival and closure

Revitalization of bid

On October 3, Musk's legal team informed Twitter that Musk had changed his mind and decided to move forward with his proposed acquisition at the originally agreed-upon price of $54.20 per share, on the condition that Twitter drop its lawsuit. [140] The reason for this reversal was attributed to concerns from Musk's team that they would not be able to prove that there was a material adverse effect justifying a break from contract. Musk and Agrawal's depositions were originally scheduled for October 6 and 10, respectively. [141] Musk stated that his purchase of Twitter was part of his ambition to create an " everything app" called X, which would offer many different services. [142] In response, McCormick asked both sides to propose to her how they should proceed. Twitter shares surged by 23 percent as a result of Musk's announcement. [141] Neither Twitter nor Musk responded to McCormick's request, prompting her to announce that the trial would go forward as planned. [143]

On October 6, McCormick agreed to a request by Musk to postpone the trial to October 28 so Musk could finalize his debt financing for the acquisition, adding that the trial would be rescheduled to November if the deal did not close by then. [144] [145] During this time, Musk deposited a $1 billion loan from his company SpaceX, paying back the loan with interest the following month. [146] [147] On October 13, court filings revealed that Musk was being investigated by the U.S. government for his conduct in the proposed buyout. [148] [149] Musk later stated that he believed Twitter's long-term value would exceed the price of $54.20 per share, which he considered an overpayment. [150] On October 20, The Washington Post reported that Musk intended to terminate 75 percent of Twitter's staff, and that Twitter executives were keen on selling the company to Musk so they could mitigate their planned payroll and infrastructure cuts. [151] [152] In an open letter, Twitter employees condemned Musk's intentions and warned of negative consequences on the future of Twitter. [153] [154] Bloomberg News and the Post further reported that officials in the Biden administration were considering a national security review of Musk's proposed acquisition and other ventures via the Committee on Foreign Investment (CFIUS), [155] [156] with the possibility of U.S. President Joe Biden blocking the purchase if need be; [157] the White House denied the reports. [158] [159]

By October 21, both parties' bankers and lawyers were set to complete the paperwork for the acquisition by the end of the month, with the deal expected to close by then. [160] [161] The banks funding the acquisition were to hold the $13 billion worth of debt incurred as opposed to selling it. [162] [163] In a video call with banks who helped Musk fund the acquisition, Musk assured them he would complete the buyout by the deadline. [164] Musk made a trip to Twitter's headquarters on October 26, tweeting a video of him carrying a kitchen sink at the site's lobby and changing his Twitter bio to "Chief Twit". [165] [166] [167] Musk also told Twitter employees that while layoffs were still likely to happen, he did not intend to do so at the scale the Post had previously reported. [168] [169] The next day, Musk wrote in an open letter to advertisers that Twitter would not become a "free-for-all hellscape", reiterating that his motives for the purchase were not based on greed but rather a desire to create "a common digital town square". [170] He then asked Tesla engineers to meet with Twitter's product managers in order to assess the platform's codebase, [171] which was frozen until November 1. [172]

Completion of purchase

In the afternoon of October 27, 2022, Musk and Twitter closed the deal, with Musk tweeting "the bird is freed". Musk immediately became Twitter's new owner, promptly firing Agrawal, chief financial officer (CFO) Ned Segal, Gadde, and general counsel Sean Edgett, [173] [174] [175] with the executives escorted out of the company's headquarters by security. [176] This move came to the surprise of many involved, who had expected Musk to allow the executives to voluntarily resign; Agrawal had prepared a draft of his resignation letter before his access to his Twitter email account was cut off. According to Walter Isaacson's biography Elon Musk (2023), Musk "meticulously" changed his plans so "he could terminate their employment before their stock options would vest", seeking retribution for Agrawal's handling of the spambot incident. [177]

Agrawal, Segal, and Gadde were set to receive " golden parachute" sums of $38.7 million, $25.4 million, and $12.5 million, respectively, [178] [179] but The New York Times reported that Musk was unlikely to make the payments because the executives had been dismissed for cause. [180] According to the Financial Times, Musk's justification for this assertion was that the company had been mismanaged, and the executives were "weighing their legal options over the decision". [181] Dorsey retained his $1 billion ownership stake, [182] [183] and several other executives departed Twitter in the ensuing days. [184] [185] [186]

Musk assumed the position of CEO, [187] [188] merging the company with X Holdings and dissolving Twitter's board of directors. [189] With this merger, Twitter ceased to be an independent company, with X Corp. later created in March 2023 to house the company. [190] [191] Musk uses the title "Chief Twit" to refer to his position as CEO. [192] A "war room" was established at Twitter, with Musk meeting with Spiro, Sacks, and others to discuss his next steps. [193] According to The New York Times, the group's two primary objectives were to reduce the size of Twitter's workforce and overhaul the platform's mobile app. [194] Twitter employees were not formally informed of the change in management, [195] with Musk originally said to be planning a town hall meeting with employees but ultimately not doing so. [173] [196] The next day, Twitter shares ceased trading in accordance with Musk's pledge to take the company private; [197] [198] [199] the company's stock ticker was delisted from the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) on November 8. [200]

Post-acquisition

Musk appointed Linda Yaccarino CEO of X Corp., the successor to Twitter.

Since becoming owner, Musk has enacted a series of reforms, including overhauling Twitter's verification system by requiring new applicants to purchase a Twitter Blue subscription. [201] Many Twitter staff members were directed to extend their working hours in order to meet Musk's deadlines for his desired changes to the platform. [202] On November 4, Musk laid off roughly half of Twitter's workforce, [203] [204] and two weeks later, he issued an ultimatum to employees to commit to "extremely hardcore" work in order to realize Musk's vision of "Twitter 2.0", or leave. [205] [206] Hundreds of employees resigned in response. [207] [208]

Meanwhile, Musk began restoring previously banned accounts such as Jordan Peterson, Kathy Griffin, The Babylon Bee, and Trump, [209] [210] while suspending anti-fascist accounts at the urging of far-right figures, [211] as well as accounts that parodied Musk. [212] [213] Musk also relaxed the platform's hate speech policies and removed its policy prohibiting COVID-19 misinformation, [214] [215] resulting in an increase in hate speech. [216] In December, Musk faced backlash after banning ElonJet, a Twitter bot account operated by Jack Sweeney which tracked Musk's private jet in real-time using publicly accessible data. [217] [218] These protests intensified when Musk suspended multiple journalists who had been covering the ElonJet incident. [219] [220] [221] Days later, Musk conducted a Twitter poll asking users whether he should step down as CEO of Twitter, [222] [223] to which voters responded in the affirmative. [224] [225] Musk stated he would step down after selecting his replacement, [226] and he was succeeded by NBCUniversal advertising sales chair Linda Yaccarino in June 2023. [227]

Musk's acquisition of Twitter was principally responsible for the development of Threads, a social media platform which closely resembles Twitter, by rival company Meta Platforms. Work began on the service in November 2022, and it was released on July 5, 2023, amidst continued backlash to changes to Twitter enacted by Musk and Yaccarino. [228] [229] In response, Twitter threatened to sue Meta over intellectual property infringement. [230] Agrawal, Segal, and Gadde filed a lawsuit against Twitter in April 2023, claiming that the company had failed to pay them for the legal fees they had incurred during their tenure. [231] McCormick ruled in the executives' favor in October. [232]

In June, X Corp. sued Wachtell to recoup a portion of the $90 million fee the law firm had paid, accusing the firm of "unjust enrichment" for charging a bonus fee on successful completion of the acquisition when the agreement with prior Twitter management stipulated billing only on an hourly basis. [233] [234] The Twitter app was rebranded as X in July, an unprecedented decision which has created confusion among users. [235] In September, Musk failed to appear before the SEC in response to the agency's investigation into his purchasing of Twitter stock the year prior, prompting a lawsuit. [236] The Wall Street Journal reported in October 2023 that the seven major banks that had provided Musk's acquisition loans failed to follow the standard practice of quickly selling down their exposure to other banks due to a lack of appetite for the debt since Musk took over, instead expected to mark down the debt by at least 15 percent in order to sell it. [237]

Reactions

Takeover bid

Following Musk's induction to Twitter's board of directors on April 5, Agrawal wrote that he believed Musk's appointment would bring long-term value to the company, while Dorsey wrote that Musk "cares deeply about our world and Twitter's role in it". [13] Dorsey privately relayed his appreciation to Musk for his commitment, texting that he trusted Musk. [8] On April 11, Agrawal stated that he believed Musk's withdrawal from the board was "for the best", noting that the company would "remain open to his input". [15]

Musk's offer to take over Twitter was met with both praise and criticism. [238] On April 14, Twitter employees expressed concern with Musk's views on free speech. [239] [240] Media outlets expressed concerns that his proposed changes to Twitter would result in an increase in disinformation and online harassment. [238] [241] Jim Cramer of CNBC opined that the Twitter board would have "no choice" but to reject Musk's offer due to potential personal liability faced by the board members. [242] On April 19, the National Urban League urged Twitter to turn down Musk's takeover bid, warning of potentially negative consequences on users' civil rights. [243]

Conservative and Republican commentators and politicians in the U.S. who believed Twitter discriminated against right-wing speech expressed enthusiasm for Musk's proposed changes. [238] [244] On April 22, U.S. House Republicans demanded that Twitter's board preserve all records pertaining to Musk's takeover proposal, which sets the stage for a potential congressional probe following the 2022 midterms. [245] Jimmy Patronis, the Chief Financial Officer of Florida, praised Musk's offer and was critical of Twitter's "poison pill" strategy. [246] According to a poll conducted by Harvard University's Center for American Political Studies (CAPS) and the Harris Poll, 57 percent of American voters approved of Musk's purchase of Twitter. [247]

Acquisition announcement

Agrawal applauded the purchase and assured employees that no layoffs were planned at that time, [248] [249] adding he was proud of Twitter employees "despite the noise" around the company. [59] He also led an all-hands meeting on April 29 to address concerns raised by employees. [250] Dorsey endorsed the sale, saying that "taking [Twitter] back from Wall Street is the correct first step" and that he trusted Musk to be the owner of the company. [251] Former Twitter CEO Dick Costolo denounced Musk's criticism of the company. [59] Gadde allegedly cried during a meeting about the announcement and was subjected to online trolling. [252] Musk's June 17 meeting with employees was generally negatively received by participants, who found Musk's statements "incoherent" and "uninspiring". [253] Musk was repeatedly derided and mocked by Twitter employees on their internal Slack channels after the deal was brokered. [141]

Republican lawmakers in the U.S. Congress such as Jim Jordan, Yvette Herrell, Marsha Blackburn, and Ted Cruz praised the deal, calling it a restoration of free speech. Meanwhile, Democratic lawmakers such as Pramila Jayapal, Jesús García, Marie Newman, Mark Pocan, and Elizabeth Warren criticized Musk and the buyout. [254] [255] In June, Texas attorney general Ken Paxton launched an investigation into whether Twitter had misled authorities on its number of spambot accounts, alluding to prior claims made by Musk. [256] Former U.S. President Donald Trump expressed approval with the deal but stated that he would not rejoin the platform, even if he is unbanned, due to his preference for his own social media platform, Truth Social; [257] Musk later indicated his intention to reverse Twitter's ban on Trump. [258] Mexican President Lopez Obrador stated that he hoped Musk would rid Twitter of "the corruption that's there, manipulation with bots". [259] Federal Communications Commission (FCC) commissioner Brendan Carr responded to calls for the agency to block the purchase by saying that it has no authority to do so, calling such requests "absurd". [260] Thierry Breton, the European Commissioner for Internal Market, emphasized that "any company operating in Europe needs to comply with [their] rules", while the European Union (EU) announced that new online rules would "overhaul" the digital market and Tech Giants. [261]

By April 27, 30,000 new users had joined the decentralized network of servers running open-source Mastodon software. [262] Conservative Twitter accounts experienced a significant increase in followers, while liberal ones experienced a slight decrease; [263] additionally, thousands of left-leaning users deactivated their accounts following the buyout. [264] LGBTQ+ users and activists expressed apprehension about the deal based on tweets by Musk mocking transgender people, fearing that the re-platforming of suspended Twitter accounts would lead to a rise in online harassment and hate speech. [265] [266] On June 3, a group of political advocacy groups which included the Center for Countering Digital Hate, GLAAD, and MediaJustice initiated a campaign to block the proposal by calling for a review of the deal by the government and a boycott of the platform by advertisers. [267]

Henrik Fisker, co-founder of electric vehicle maker Fisker Inc. and a rival of Musk's, left Twitter shortly after the acquisition announcement. [268] Amazon founder Jeff Bezos questioned whether Tesla's business interest in China would give the Chinese government leverage over Twitter via Musk, before answering that it would "probably not". [269] [270] Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates questioned if Musk would allow the spread of public health misinformation, including vaccine misinformation. [271] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales speculated that Twitter could either thrive or fall within five years under Musk's supervision. [272] Bitcoin investor Roger Ver and Coinbase CEO Brian Armstrong welcomed the buyout, citing the potential for reduction of perceived censorship on Twitter. [273] Google and Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai said that he hoped Twitter would improve over time due to its importance to society, [274] while Facebook and Meta founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg expressed confusion and uncertainty over the proposed buyout. [275]

Attempted termination

Edgett instructed employees not to share commentary on the purported cancellation; nonetheless, several Twitter employees posted humorous messages making light of the situation. [276] Tesla shares rose 2.11 percent in the hours after Musk's announcement. [277] Trump criticized Musk and called the acquisition "rotten", [278] which led to a protracted feud between the two. [279] [280] With the exception of Trump, most conservatives sided with Musk, with former White House chief strategist Steve Bannon attacking Twitter for allegedly lying about the prevalence of its spambot accounts and Turning Point USA CEO Charlie Kirk musing that Musk may have been seeking to "expose" Twitter the whole time. [281] In an email sent to Twitter's employees in response to Zatko's complaint, Agrawal sharply rejected the claims and called them a "false narrative". [282]

Completion of purchase

Trump responded approvingly of the purchase after the deal was closed, saying that he was pleased Twitter was "in sane hands", rather than what he termed "radical left lunatics". [283] [284] Other Republican politicians, including Dan Crenshaw, Darrell Issa, [285] Marjorie Taylor Greene, [286] Marsha Blackburn, [193] Anthony Sabatini, Amy Kremer, [287] Lauren Boebert, Dick Black, [288] Cruz, [289] and Jordan applauded the purchase as well. Democrat Amy Klobuchar voiced her distrust of Musk and called for tighter government regulation of the platform, [290] while Democrat Chris Murphy advocated for a federal investigation into the role of Saudi Arabia in the purchase. [291] Dmitry Medvedev, deputy chairman of the Security Council of Russia and former President of Russia, was pleased with the news, stating that he hoped Twitter would eliminate "political bias and ideological dictatorship". Breton again emphasized that Twitter was bound by the EU's laws, [292] alluding to the recently passed Digital Services Act. [293]

Internally, Twitter employees expressed concern that Musk would lay off employees before they receive their compensation payments, [179] among other messages criticizing Musk and voicing solidarity with each other. [288] Amid conflicting reports on whether Musk was planning sweeping layoffs, many employees expressed uncertainty and fear on Slack, Discord, and LinkedIn. [294] [295] Women's rights activist Seyi Akiwowo tweeted her disappointment with Gadde's dismissal, while children's rights activist Beeban Kidron said that Musk's newfound power would not result in more free speech. [293] Podcaster Joe Rogan praised Musk for his aspirations, [290] while right-wing Twitter account Libs of TikTok rejoiced over the news of the purchase. [289] Media personality Stew Peters, who had been blocked from Twitter for months, attempted to circumvent the block after the purchase using a new account, which was later suspended. [288] Margarita Simonyan, editor-in-chief of the Russian state-controlled RT broadcasting service, demanded that Musk lift her Twitter suspension. [196] Bin Talal Al Saud congratulated Musk on the purchase, [288] and JPMorgan Chase CEO Jamie Dimon urged Musk to eradicate spambot accounts. [296] Tesla rival General Motors announced it would temporarily stop paid advertising on Twitter. [292] Advertising agencies IPG Mediabrands and Omnicom Media Group recommended their clients temporarily pause advertising on Twitter due to safety and trust concerns over Musk's ownership. [297] [298] A slew of companies proceeded to do so, including Audi, Bentley, the Carlsberg Group, General Mills, Lamborghini, Mondelez International, Porsche, Pfizer, REI, and the Volkswagen Group. [299] [300] Media buying agency GroupM also advised its clients against procuring advertisements from Twitter. [301] Alt-tech social media platform Parler welcomed Musk's purchase, while alt-tech platform Gettr was more skeptical, believing Twitter was "fundamentally broken". [302] Similarities have been drawn between the acquisition and the 2022 film Glass Onion: A Knives Out Mystery, with some viewers comparing Musk to the character of Miles Bron, though director Rian Johnson stated that the similarities were purely coincidental. [303] [304]

Online reception to Musk's completion of the purchase was mixed. [305] According to Memetica, a digital investigations company, several far-right figures experienced a significant increase in followers after the deal was finalized, while many progressives experienced a significant decrease, although it is unclear if Musk's takeover drove the changes in followers. [306] Mastodon once again experienced a surge in sign-ups. [307] Multiple celebrities in the entertainment industry announced their departure from the platform, [308] [309] while some left-wing influencers such as John Pavlovitz and Rob Reiner urged fellow leftists to remain on Twitter for the time being. [308] [306] The Network Contagion Research Institute (NCRI) observed a 500 percent spike in the use of the racial slur " nigger" in the 12 hours after Musk completed the acquisition, while The Washington Post noted an increase in pro- Nazi, misogynistic, and anti-LGBTQ+ tweets. [196] Basketball player LeBron James expressed concern over the NCRI's report, condemning "unfit people saying hate speech is free speech". [310] Twitter responded by saying that the accounts using racial slurs were part of a " trolling campaign" and would be banned summarily. [311] [312] The Center for Countering Digital Hate reported that anti-Black, anti-gay, and anti-transgender slurs had increased since Musk took control of Twitter, while the Anti-Defamation League reported an increase in antisemitic content. [313]

Critical analysis

Takeover bid and acquisition announcement

Anticipating a takeover, Elizabeth Lopatto of The Verge predicted that it would lead to a mass employee exodus and a possible reinstatement of Trump's Twitter account. [314] After the acquisition announcement, Alex Werpin of The Hollywood Reporter warned of widespread repercussions. [315] Greg Bensinger of The New York Times argued that Musk's acquisition was "about controlling a megaphone" rather than free speech, [316] while Elizabeth Dwoskin of The Washington Post remarked that Musk's free speech vision for Twitter was considered by technologists to be outdated and impractical. [317] Don Pittis of CBC News noted the controversy associated with the wealthy gaining control of media platforms. [318] Brendan O'Neill of Spiked observed that Musk's purchase of Twitter and the resulting backlash represented a "battle for control of the Internet", [319] with Business Insider's Ben Gilbert calling the purchase the latest "battleground" in the culture war between Democrats and Republicans. [320] Michael Hiltzik of The Seattle Times commented that Musk's impact on Twitter would depend on his policies and how he chooses to implement them. [321] David Auerbach of UnHerd saw the purchase as indicative of a "major flashpoint" in the transition of society to "a more decentralized, chaotic, and devolved world". [322] Paul R. La Monica of CNN Business suggested that Tesla's declining stock price indicated that Wall Street investors were doubtful on whether Musk's purchase would go through. [323] CleanTechnica's Matt Pressman believed that Musk's purchase would benefit Tesla because owners of the company's cars often engaged on the platform, [324] and Lindsey Bakes of Deseret News wrote that Musk could integrate cryptocurrency within Twitter. [325]

Kevin D. Williamson of American conservative magazine National Review likened Musk's purchase of Twitter to the Donald Trump 2016 presidential campaign, labeling it a publicity stunt, [326] his colleague Rich Lowry said that liberal politicians' strong reaction to Musk's purchase was an indication that Twitter's existing policies had "political consequences", [327] and the editors of the publication wished Musk well in his quest to promote free speech on Twitter. [328] Bonnie Kristian of evangelical magazine Christianity Today felt that the purchase would only "add to the confusion" surrounding the contentious debate on free speech, [329] while Paris Marx of American socialist magazine Jacobin dismissed Musk's proclamations that he sought to protect free speech as an "example of his hubris". [330] Corbin K. Barthold of conservative public policy magazine City Journal believed it would be difficult but "worth the struggle" to end censorship on Twitter, [331] while Peter van Buren of The Spectator World opined that Musk should simply take Twitter offline. [332] Cathy Young of center-right news website The Bulwark felt that Musk's planned reforms to Twitter were "unlikely to succeed", further observing that commentators who opposed the purchase viewed it as right-wing backlash against "perceived left-wing social media bias". [333] Robby Soave of American libertarian magazine Reason postulated that Musk's purchase would not threaten Twitter or democracy, suggesting that those overstating the importance of the platform were "Musk's critics in progressive and mainstream media", [334] with James McElroy of The American Conservative further arguing that many journalists' condemnation of the acquisition was motivated by "professional anxiety". [335]

Equity analyst Angelo Zino believed that Twitter's acceptance of Musk's proposal may have stemmed from its realization that alternative bidders would be unlikely to emerge due to social media companies' declining asset prices. [58] Associate professor Brian Quinn of Boston College Law School noted that it would be difficult for Musk to arbitrarily pull out of the deal due to the contractual doctrines of fair dealing and good faith. [336] Kate Klonick, a law professor at St. John's University, argued that to allow "all free speech" to exist on Twitter would open the door to the spread of pornography and hate speech. [337] Similarly, Joan Donovan, research director at Harvard's Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, stated that the lack of moderation on Twitter would lead to online harassment. [338] Bill George, a senior fellow at Harvard Business School and former CEO of Medtronic, argued that Musk's purchase of Twitter would harm both society and Musk himself, [339] while analyst Mike Proulx of Forrester Research cautioned that other companies may leave Twitter if Musk loosens its moderation policies. [340] Proprietary trader Dennis Dick opined that Musk's spambot claims were tactics by him to lower the price of the purchase. [341] Analysts noted that the involvement of foreign entities as independent investors could cause the transaction to face national security scrutiny by the CFIUS. [342] [343] Left-leaning media watchdog Media Matters for America and think tank Australian Strategic Policy Institute suggested that China could use its influence to extract political concessions or manipulate Twitter due to Musk's ties to the country. [344] [345] American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) executive director Anthony D. Romero warned of the potential danger of Musk wielding excessive power. [346]

Attempted termination

Following Musk's announcement that he intended to terminate the agreement, legal experts generally agreed it would be difficult for him to do so. [347] Law professor James Park of the University of California, Los Angeles found Musk's spambot argument weak and doubted it was material, while Case Western Reserve University business law professor Anat Alon-Beck observed that Twitter was compelled to enforce the merger so as to disprove Musk's allegations. Professor Jennifer Grygiel of Syracuse University mused that Musk may reverse course and revisit the deal. [348] Tulane University Law School associate dean for faculty research Ann Lipton and mergers and acquisitions expert Julian Klymochko both expressed doubts that Musk could prove there was a material adverse effect. [349] [350]

Felix Salmon of Axios noted that a clause in the contract opened the door for a judge to grant specific performance and order Musk to move forward with the deal. [351] CNBC's Jonathan Vanian described Musk's withdrawal as the product of months of buyer's remorse, [352] while his colleague Alex Sherman observed that paying the stipulated breakup fee would not relieve Musk of compensations or sanctions. [353] Writing for The Wall Street Journal, Holman W. Jenkins Jr. questioned whether Musk had proposed the acquisition "out of mouth momentum or excessive enjoyment of the limelight or for some mysterious reason that causes an onlooker to throw up his hands". [354] Various news publications believed that Zatko's complaint provided potential evidence in Musk's favor, [355] [356] [357] though Bloomberg News columnist Matt Levine argued that the complaint confirmed Twitter's monetizable daily active users counts do not include spambots. [358]

Revitalization of bid

Greg Varallo of the Bernstein Litowitz Berger & Grossmann law firm observed that if Musk fails to secure funding and close the acquisition, he could be barred from claiming that he can terminate the acquisition as per the legal doctrine of judicial estoppel. [359] New York University's Center for Social Media and Politics executive director Zeve Sanderson cautioned that if Musk does lay off 75 percent of Twitter's workforce, it would make it more difficult for the company to moderate its content. Professor David Kaye of the University of California, Irvine School of Law and Professor Eric Goldman of the Santa Clara University School of Law concurred, warning of a potential increase in misinformation and harassment on the platform. However, they noted that the layoffs could still be mitigated through an increase in automated content moderation. [360]

Completion of purchase

Conservative commentators celebrated the purchase's closure. [286] [289] [361] Fox News host Tucker Carlson argued that Musk's laissez-faire approach to moderation on Twitter would reshape American political discourse. [361] Shapiro wrote that he hoped other social media platforms would implement Musk's proposals and called on Musk to reverse Peterson's suspension from Twitter. [286] [289] [361] Political commentator Matt Walsh saw the purchase as an opportunity to rally opposition against the " trans agenda". [196] [361] Political columnist Benny Johnson called on Musk to reverse the suspensions of several prominent conservatives. [286] Spiked's O'Neill claimed that liberals' negative reaction to the closure reflected their fear of freedom and liberty, [362] while Washington Examiner's Christopher Tremoglie disapproved of Musk's idea for a moderation council as continued censorship. [363]

Lauren Hirsch of The New York Times observed that Musk would face financial challenges in owning Twitter, including the company's difficulty in turning a profit. [364] Richard Waters of the Financial Times echoed Hirsch's sentiments, adding that it would difficult for Musk to allow the right amount of free speech on the platform. [365] Kate Ferguson of Deutsche Welle viewed Musk as unreliable and therefore unfit to operate Twitter, [366] and Hamilton Nolan of The Guardian felt the purchase was an attempt by Musk to "control the conversation". [367] Barbara Ortutay, Tom Krisher and Matt O'Brien of the Associated Press noted Musk's contradictory and vague messages in the past regarding his vision for Twitter, [368] while Ben Burgis of Jacobin criticized liberals' technocratic views and their downplaying of the importance of free speech in response to the purchase, though he remarked that Musk had a history of suppressing his critics. [369] Also writing for The New York Times, Kate Conger, Ryan Mac, and Tiffany Hsu noted that Musk's meetings with civil rights activists and his plans for a content moderation council were reminiscent of the actions taken by Zuckerberg following backlash on Facebook's handling of the 2016 U.S. elections. [370] Politico's Jack Shafer noted that media coverage of Musk's purchase foretold "chaos, greater political oversight, and outright failure." [371]

Edward Niedermeyer, an author and critic of Musk, argued that Twitter may fail due to Musk's hubris. [371] Scholars who studied the First Amendment, such as professor Jonathan Turley of the George Washington University Law School, praised Musk's plans to tone down content moderation on Twitter. [296] New York University's Center for Business and Human Rights deputy director Paul M. Barrett speculated that a moderation council under Musk would face skepticism due to Musk's "erratic and imperious" behavior in the past. [196] Alex Stamos of Stanford University's Center for International Security and Cooperation questioned how Musk would respond to foreign governments attempting to influence Twitter's userbase. [196] Those in the cryptocurrency field, such as podcaster Bryce Paul and investor Cathie Wood, expressed excitement at the prospects of Musk's ownership. [296]

Media Matters for America president Angela Carusone warned that Musk's leadership would lead to an increase in disinformation, conspiracy theories, and harassment on Twitter. [372] Literary group PEN America opined that the midterm elections in November would serve as a test as to whether Musk would allow disinformation to spread rapidly on the platform, [373] while American left-wing activist coalition Stop the Deal warned of real-world consequences if a rise in hate speech occurs on Twitter. [292] [196] Over 40 civil rights groups signed an open letter to 20 Twitter advertisers urging them to abandon the platform if Musk lifts its content moderation measures. [184] Anti-Defamation League CEO Jonathan Greenblatt said he was "cautiously optimistic" about the purchase, but expressed concerns over a potential rise in hate speech. [372] Fight for the Future director Evan Greer appreciated Musk's idea for a moderation council, but noted that Musk had supreme authority on any decisions made. [193] Eliot Higgins of Bellingcat believed that Musk's attempts to promote free speech would backfire under increased government regulation. [285] LGBTQ+ advocacy group Human Rights Campaign voiced concern at Twitter's new ownership and argued that Twitter has the responsibility to stop its platform from turning into a "dangerous media environment". [196]

Legacy

On the first anniversary of the acquisition, Musk valued the company at $19 billion, a 55 percent decrease from the buyout's $44 billion purchase price. [374] [375] Fidelity, which contributed $300 million to the acquisition, depressed the value by 65 percent. [376] Statistics indicated a 30 percent decline in active users, 60 percent decline in advertising, [377] 14 percent decline in website traffic, [378] and 38 percent decline in app downloads. [379] The company has denied this, claiming an increase in engagement. [378] A nonfiction book about the acquisition, Breaking Twitter: Elon Musk and the Most Controversial Corporate Takeover in History, was announced by author Ben Mezrich in December 2022 and released in November 2023. [380] [381]

Many publications reflected on Twitter's first year under Musk's ownership. Journalists for The Washington Post, citing data from the University of Washington, wrote that the platform had "become a cacophony of misinformation and confusing reports", remarking on Twitter's stark shift toward conservatism. [382] Pranav Dixit of The Guardian lambasted the changes and reforms Musk had instituted in the past year, [383] while Miles Klee of Rolling Stone criticized Musk's alleged pandering to " right-wing extremists and peddlers of misinformation". [384] The Verge's Jay Peters pointed to Musk's radical changes and declining user numbers as evidence that the takeover was a "disaster", [385] while Bloomberg's Aisha Counts zeroed in on the increase in misinformation and hate speech. [386] Kate Conger of The New York Times and Alex Kirshner of Slate lamented that Musk's acquisition had fundamentally changed the meaning of Twitter. [387] [388] Annika Burgess of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation declared, "Twitter as the world knew it is dead". [389] Musk has largely dismissed this negative commentary. [390] [391] [392]

References

  1. ^ "x.com". X (formerly Twitter). Retrieved June 4, 2024.
  2. ^ D'Onfro, Jillian; Ranj, Brandt (January 20, 2022). "The very first tweets from famous tech execs like Elon Musk and Marissa Mayer". Business Insider. Archived from the original on January 22, 2016. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  3. ^ Imbert, Fred (April 4, 2022). "Twitter shares close up 27% after Elon Musk takes 9% stake in social media company". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 4, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  4. ^ Mankarious, Sarah-Grace; Chacón, Marco; Duffy, Clare; Thorbecke, Catherine (April 26, 2022). "Here's what Elon Musk has tweeted over the years ... about Twitter". CNN Business. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  5. ^ a b Adler, Maxwell; Hull, Dana; Paris, Martine (April 25, 2022). "A Timeline of Elon Musk's Takeover of Twitter". Yahoo! Finance. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  6. ^ Duffy, Kate (April 5, 2022). "Elon Musk asks Twitter users whether they'd like an 'edit' button. Twitter's CEO says results of the poll will be 'important.'". Business Insider. Archived from the original on April 5, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nover, Scott (May 20, 2022). "An annotated timeline of Elon Musk buying Twitter". Quartz. Archived from the original on May 20, 2022. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  8. ^ a b Hays, Kali; Kay, Grace (September 29, 2022). "Newly revealed private texts show Jack Dorsey tried to get Elon Musk involved with Twitter at least a year before the $44 billion deal. 'I trust you,' Dorsey wrote". Business Insider. Archived from the original on September 29, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  9. ^ Kolodny, Lora; Novet, Jordan (April 5, 2022). "Elon Musk spent $2.64 billion on Twitter shares so far this year, new filing shows". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 6, 2022. Retrieved April 7, 2022.
  10. ^ Isaac, Mike; Hirsch, Lauren (April 4, 2022). "Elon Musk becomes Twitter's largest shareholder". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 4, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  11. ^ Turner, Giles; Trudell, Craig (April 4, 2022). "Elon Musk Takes 9.2% Stake in Twitter After Hinting at Shake-Up". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 4, 2022. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  12. ^ Corfield, Gareth (April 5, 2022). "Elon Musk to join Twitter board". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN  0307-1235. Archived from the original on April 5, 2022. Retrieved April 5, 2022.
  13. ^ a b Duffy, Clare (April 5, 2022). "Elon Musk to join Twitter's board". CNN Business. Archived from the original on April 5, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  14. ^ Chitkara, Hirsh (April 11, 2022). "Elon Musk would've been Twitter's corporate governance nightmare". Protocol. Archived from the original on April 12, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  15. ^ a b Bond, Shannon (April 11, 2022). "Elon Musk says he will not join the Twitter board, after all". NPR. Archived from the original on April 11, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  16. ^ Smith, Zachary Snowdon (April 12, 2022). "Twitter Shareholder Sues Musk, Saying He Misled Investors". Forbes. Archived from the original on April 12, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  17. ^ Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (April 14, 2022). "I made an offer
    [https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/0001418091/000110465922045641/tm2212748d1_sc13da.htm https://sec.gov/Archives/edgar...]"
    ( Tweet). Archived from the original on April 14, 2022. Retrieved May 2, 2022 – via Twitter.
  18. ^ Turner, Giles; Adler, Maxwell (April 14, 2022). "Elon Musk Makes $43 Billion Unsolicited Bid to Take Twitter Private". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 14, 2022. Retrieved April 14, 2022.
  19. ^ Frater, Patrick (April 14, 2022). "Elon Musk Launches $43 Billion Hostile Takeover Bid for Twitter". Variety. Archived from the original on April 14, 2022. Retrieved April 14, 2022.
  20. ^ Gilbert, Ben (April 23, 2022). "Elon Musk is attempting a hostile takeover of Twitter. Here's how that could work". Business Insider. Archived from the original on April 23, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  21. ^ Subin, Samantha (April 14, 2022). "Elon Musk offers to buy Twitter for $43 billion, so it can be 'transformed as private company'". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 14, 2022. Retrieved April 14, 2022.
  22. ^ Syme, Pete (September 1, 2023). "Elon Musk stayed up playing video games in a Vancouver hotel until 5:30 a.m. after he offered to buy Twitter, because he was in 'stress mode'". Business Insider. Archived from the original on September 1, 2023. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  23. ^ Sato, Mia (April 14, 2022). "Buying Twitter 'is not a way to make money,' says Musk in TED interview". The Verge. Archived from the original on April 14, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  24. ^ Robertson, Adi (April 15, 2022). "What Elon Musk's Twitter 'free speech' promises miss". The Verge. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  25. ^ Milmo, Dan (April 14, 2022). "How 'free speech absolutist' Elon Musk would transform Twitter". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  26. ^ Zakrzewski, Cat; Siddiqui, Faiz; Menn, Joseph (November 22, 2022). "Musk's 'free speech' agenda dismantles safety work at Twitter, insiders say". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on November 22, 2022. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
  27. ^ Copeland, Rob; Elliott, Rebecca; Lombardo, Cara (April 14, 2022). "Elon Musk Makes $43 Billion Bid for Twitter, Says 'Civilization' At Stake". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved April 14, 2022.
  28. ^ Manfredi, Lucas (April 15, 2022). "Twitter adopts 'poison pill' to prevent Elon Musk takeover". Fox Business. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  29. ^ a b Levine, Matt (April 21, 2022). "Elon Got His Money". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 22, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  30. ^ Spangler, Todd (April 21, 2022). "Elon Musk Secures $46.5 Billion in Financing for Potential Twitter Takeover". Variety. Archived from the original on April 21, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  31. ^ Isaac, Mike; Hirsch, Lauren (April 25, 2022). "With Deal for Twitter, Musk Lands a Prize and Pledges Fewer Limits". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  32. ^ MacMillan, Douglas; Siddiqui, Faiz; Lerman, Rachel; Telford, Taylor (April 25, 2022). "Elon Musk acquires Twitter for roughly $44 billion". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  33. ^ a b Feuer, Will (May 5, 2022). "Elon Musk Gets $7 Billion in Fresh Financing for Twitter Deal". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on May 5, 2022. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
  34. ^ a b c Hu, Krystal; Sen, Anirban (April 29, 2022). "Musk told banks he will rein in Twitter pay, make money from tweets". Reuters. Archived from the original on April 29, 2022. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  35. ^ Manfredi, Lucas (April 22, 2022). "Elon Musk registers three 'X Holdings' companies to support Twitter takeover bid". Fox Business. Archived from the original on April 22, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  36. ^ Salmon, Felix (April 28, 2022). "Tesla's stock could fall much further". Axios. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  37. ^ Baker, Liana; Davis, Michelle F. (April 25, 2022). "Twitter Eyes Deal With Musk as Soon as Monday". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  38. ^ Hirsch, Lauren; Isaac, Mike; Conger, Kate (April 24, 2022). "Twitter Nears a Deal to Sell Itself to Elon Musk". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  39. ^ Lombardo, Cara; Cimilluca, Dana (April 24, 2022). "Twitter, Elon Musk Deal Could Be Announced Monday". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on April 24, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  40. ^ Roumeliotis, Greg (April 25, 2022). "Twitter set to accept Musk's $43 billion offer". Reuters. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  41. ^ Bursztynsky, Jessica (April 25, 2022). "Twitter shares jump 5% on reports it could accept Elon Musk's bid as early as Monday". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  42. ^ Spangler, Todd (April 25, 2022). "Elon Musk Clinches Deal to Buy Twitter for $44 Billion". Variety. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  43. ^ Duffy, Clare (June 21, 2022). "Twitter board recommends shareholders vote in support of Musk acquisition". CTV News. Archived from the original on June 21, 2022. Retrieved June 22, 2022.
  44. ^ a b Conger, Kate; Hirsch, Lauren (October 4, 2022). "The Board Chair Squaring Up to Elon Musk in the Feud Over Twitter". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  45. ^ Lombardo, Cara; Bobrowsky, Meghan; Wells, Georgia (April 25, 2022). "Twitter Accepts Elon Musk's Offer to Buy Company in $44 Billion Deal". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  46. ^ McCabe, David (April 25, 2022). "Regulators are unlikely to block Musk's purchase of Twitter, former officials say". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  47. ^ Nover, Scott (April 27, 2022). "Elon Musk already broke his agreement with Twitter". Quartz. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved May 24, 2022.
  48. ^ Balu, Nivedita (April 26, 2022). "Twitter-Musk deal includes $1 billion termination fee – filing". Reuters. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  49. ^ Sherman, Alex (May 13, 2022). "Elon Musk can't just walk away from his Twitter deal by paying a $1 billion breakup fee". CNBC. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  50. ^ Werpin, Alex (April 25, 2022). "$978M for Jack Dorsey and $39M for Parag Agrawal: Twitter Execs Could See Massive Paydays If Elon Musk Takeover Closes". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  51. ^ Palmer, Annie (May 5, 2022). "Elon Musk expected to serve as temporary Twitter CEO after deal closes". CNBC. Archived from the original on May 6, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  52. ^ Siddiqui, Faiz (April 26, 2022). "Tesla's value dropped Tuesday by more than double the cost of Twitter". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  53. ^ Gura, David (April 26, 2022). "Tesla shares sink, wipe out over $125 billion in value, as Musk scores Twitter deal". NPR. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  54. ^ Isidore, Chris (April 29, 2022). "Elon Musk sells $8.5 billion worth of Tesla shares". CNN Business. Archived from the original on April 29, 2022.
  55. ^ Sherman, Natalie; Thomas, Daniel (April 25, 2022). "Elon Musk strikes deal to buy Twitter for $44bn". BBC News. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  56. ^ Cuthbertson, Anthony (April 11, 2022). "Elon Musk says he's serious about converting Twitter HQ into homeless shelter". The Independent. Archived from the original on April 11, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  57. ^ Olinga, Luc (April 10, 2022). "Musk Has an Original Idea to Solve The Homeless Crisis in San Francisco". TheStreet. Archived from the original on April 10, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  58. ^ a b Duffy, Clare (April 25, 2022). "Elon Musk to buy Twitter in $44 billion deal". CNN Business. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  59. ^ a b c Woo, Erin; Isaac, Mike (April 27, 2022). "In tweets, Musk takes aim at Twitter executives, creating outrage". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022. Minutes later, Twitter users began tweeting abusive comments at Ms. Gadde and Mr. Baker, including racist and sexist attacks.
  60. ^ Zakrzewski, Cat; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Siddiqui, Faiz (April 27, 2022). "Elon Musk boosts criticism of Twitter executives, prompting online attacks". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022. Twitter users quickly piled on — calling on Musk to fire Gadde or using racist language to describe her.
  61. ^ Wagner, Kurt; Adler, Maxwell (April 27, 2022). "Twitter Legal Executive Hit With Online Abuse Following Musk Tweet". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022. Some used expletives or racist slurs referring to Gadde's Indian heritage, [including references to curry and India's caste system.]
  62. ^ Vincent, James (April 28, 2022). "Twitter reassures advertisers Musk won't make the platform more of a toxic hell-hole than it already is". The Verge. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  63. ^ Soon, Weilun (April 29, 2022). "Elon Musk suggested firing workers and working with influencers to boost Twitter's bottom line: reports". Business Insider. Archived from the original on April 29, 2022. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  64. ^ Baker, Liana; Davis, Michelle F.; Wagner, Kurt (April 8, 2022). "Musk's Twitter Pitch Featured Job Cuts, Other Ways to Make Money". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  65. ^ Goldbart, Max (May 4, 2022). "Elon Musk Summoned By UK Parliamentary Committee To Discuss Twitter, Free Speech And Online Harms". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 4, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  66. ^ Spangler, Todd (May 5, 2022). "Elon Musk Lines Up Additional $7.1 Billion for Twitter Takeover, Including $1 Billion From Larry Ellison". Variety. Archived from the original on May 5, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  67. ^ Szalai, Georg (May 5, 2022). "Elon Musk Secures $7.14B in New Financing for Twitter Deal, Holds Talks to Keep Jack Dorsey on Board as Investor". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 5, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  68. ^ Hirsch, Lauren (May 5, 2022). "Elon Musk has brought in new investors to fund his Twitter deal, a filing shows". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 5, 2022.
  69. ^ Michaels, Dave (May 11, 2022). "Elon Musk's Belated Disclosure of Twitter Stake Triggers Regulators' Probes". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  70. ^ Spangler, Todd (May 12, 2022). "Ahead of Musk Takeover, Twitter CEO Fires Senior Execs Kayvon Beykpour and Bruce Falck". Variety. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022. Retrieved May 14, 2022.
  71. ^ Balu, Nivedita; Li, Kenneth (May 13, 2022). "Musk says $44 bln Twitter deal on hold over fake account data". Reuters. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  72. ^ Brandom, Russell (May 13, 2022). "Twitter shares plummet as Musk raises new doubts about acquisition". The Verge. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  73. ^ Seal, Dean; Needleman, Sarah E.; Lombardo, Cara (May 13, 2022). "Elon Musk Says His $44 Billion Twitter Deal Is 'On Hold'". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  74. ^ Huston, Caitlin (May 13, 2022). "Twitter CEO Ushers in Budget Cuts Amid Elon Musk Deal Tumult". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 14, 2022. Retrieved May 14, 2022.
  75. ^ Manfredi, Lucas (May 16, 2022). "Elon Musk sends poop emoji to Twitter CEO in response to thread on spam, fake accounts". Fox Business. Archived from the original on May 16, 2022. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  76. ^ "Musk says he'll scrap Twitter buy unless he gets clarity on fake account volume". CBS News. May 17, 2022. Archived from the original on May 17, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  77. ^ Porter, Jon (May 17, 2022). "Elon Musk says Twitter deal 'cannot move forward' until it proves bot numbers". The Verge. Archived from the original on May 17, 2022. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  78. ^ Kolodny, Lora (May 17, 2022). "Elon Musk calls on SEC to evaluate Twitter user numbers". CNBC. Archived from the original on May 17, 2022. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  79. ^ Stelter, Brian (May 17, 2022). "Twitter board says it will 'enforce the merger agreement' despite Elon Musk's latest move". CNN Business. Archived from the original on May 19, 2022. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  80. ^ Smith, Connor (May 25, 2022). "Tesla CEO Elon Musk Fine-Tunes His Potential Buy of Twitter". Barron's. Archived from the original on May 25, 2022. Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  81. ^ Brandom, Russell (May 25, 2022). "Elon Musk will put up $6 billion to drop Tesla loans from his Twitter deal". The Verge. Archived from the original on May 25, 2022. Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  82. ^ Isaac, Mike; Conger, Kate (May 25, 2022). "Twitter's Chief Tries Staying the Course as Elon Musk Upends Plans". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 25, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  83. ^ Kolodny, Lora (May 26, 2022). "Twitter shareholders sue Elon Musk and Twitter over chaotic deal". CNBC. Archived from the original on May 27, 2022. Retrieved May 27, 2022.
  84. ^ Brodkin, Jon (May 26, 2022). "Lawsuit: Musk manipulated Twitter stock price in attempt to renegotiate sale". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on May 26, 2022.
  85. ^ Liang, Annabelle (May 27, 2022). "Twitter investor sues Elon Musk and platform over takeover bid". BBC News. Archived from the original on May 27, 2022. Retrieved May 27, 2022.
  86. ^ Schuetz, Molly (June 3, 2022). "Twitter Clears US Antitrust Review on $44 Billion Musk Deal". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on June 3, 2022. Retrieved June 4, 2022.
  87. ^ Krisher, Tom; O'Brien, Matt (June 6, 2022). "Musk threatens to walk away from Twitter deal". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 6, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  88. ^ Werpin, Alex (June 6, 2022). "Elon Musk Says Twitter "Actively Resisting" Terms of Merger Agreement, Threatens Termination of Deal Over Spambot Dispute". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 6, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  89. ^ Spangler, Todd (June 6, 2022). "Elon Musk Claims Twitter Is in 'Material Breach' of $44 Billion Deal Over Refusal to Provide Info on Fake Accounts". Variety. Archived from the original on June 6, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  90. ^ Gans, Jared (June 8, 2022). "Twitter will give Musk user data amid takeover impasse: report". The Hill. Archived from the original on June 8, 2022. Retrieved June 8, 2022.
  91. ^ Primack, Dan (June 8, 2022). "Elon Musk will get user data "firehose" from Twitter". Axios. Archived from the original on June 8, 2022. Retrieved June 10, 2022.
  92. ^ Beyoud, Lydia (August 24, 2022). "Twitter Is Facing Fresh SEC Scrutiny Over Spam-Account Calculations". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on August 24, 2022. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  93. ^ Brandom, Russell (August 24, 2022). "The SEC asked Twitter to explain its user metrics after Elon Musk complained". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 24, 2022. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  94. ^ Hays, Kali (June 13, 2022). "Elon Musk to attend all hands meeting at Twitter this week, speaking to staff for first time since launching his $44 billion acquisition". Business Insider. Archived from the original on June 14, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  95. ^ Ghaffary, Shirin (June 16, 2022). "What you need to know about Elon Musk's big meeting with Twitter employees". Recode. Archived from the original on June 16, 2022. Retrieved July 3, 2022.
  96. ^ Isaac, Mike (June 16, 2022). "Elon Musk tells Twitter's employees he wants the service to 'contribute to a better, long-lasting civilization.'". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 16, 2022. Retrieved July 3, 2022.
  97. ^ Duffy, Clare; O'Sullivan, Donie (June 16, 2022). "Elon Musk addresses layoffs, remote work and 'free speech' during his first meeting with Twitter employees". CNN Business. Archived from the original on June 16, 2022. Retrieved July 3, 2022.
  98. ^ Wong, Queenie; Morse, Andrew (June 16, 2022). "Elon Musk Reportedly Tells Twitter Employees He Wants 1 Billion Users". CNET. Archived from the original on June 16, 2022. Retrieved July 3, 2022.
  99. ^ Werpin, Alex (June 16, 2022). "Elon Musk Wants Twitter to Be a Little More Like TikTok". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 16, 2022. Retrieved August 6, 2022.
  100. ^ Menn, Joseph; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Zakrzewski, Cat (August 23, 2022). "Former security chief claims Twitter buried 'egregious deficiencies'". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on August 23, 2022. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
  101. ^ Siddiqui, Faiz; Dwoskin, Elizabeth (August 23, 2022). "New whistleblower allegations could factor into Twitter vs. Musk trial". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on August 23, 2022. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
  102. ^ Bursztynsky, Jessica (May 16, 2022). "Twitter CEO explains how the company actually fights spambots in rebuttal to Musk". CNBC. Archived from the original on May 16, 2022. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  103. ^ Dang, Sheila; Paul, Katie (July 7, 2022). "Twitter says it removes over 1 million spam accounts each day". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 7, 2022. Retrieved July 7, 2022.
  104. ^ Siddiqui, Faiz; De Vynck, Gerrit (July 7, 2022). "Elon Musk's deal to buy Twitter is in peril". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on July 7, 2022. Retrieved July 7, 2022.
  105. ^ Roumeliotis, Greg (July 8, 2022). "Elon Musk terminating Twitter deal". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 8, 2022. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  106. ^ Duffy, Clare; Fung, Brian; Metz, Rachel (July 8, 2022). "Elon Musk tells Twitter he wants out of his deal to buy it". CNN Business. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  107. ^ Ortutay, Barbara; Krisher, Tom; O'Brien, Matt (July 8, 2022). "Musk abandons deal to buy Twitter; company says it will sue". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  108. ^ Spangler, Todd (July 8, 2022). "Elon Musk Terminates Deal to Buy Twitter, Company Vows to Sue Him". Variety. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  109. ^ Goldsmith, Jill; Hayes, Dade (July 11, 2022). "Elon Musk Twitter Deal Is "Not Terminated," Tech Firm's Lawyer Insists; Stock Falls 11% As Tesla CEO's Meme Mockery Continues". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 12, 2022. Retrieved August 6, 2022.
  110. ^ a b Lawler, Richard (July 10, 2022). "Twitter reportedly hires the firm that invented the 'poison pill' to sue Elon Musk". The Verge. Archived from the original on July 11, 2022. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
  111. ^ a b Conger, Kate (October 29, 2022). "Silicon Valley's Elite Get Dragged Into Musk-Twitter Trial". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 29, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  112. ^ a b Conger, Kate; Hirsch, Lauren (July 12, 2022). "Twitter Sues Musk After He Tries Backing Out of $44 Billion Deal". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 12, 2022. Retrieved July 12, 2022.
  113. ^ O'Brien, Matt (July 12, 2022). "Twitter sues to force Musk to complete his US$44B acquisition". CTV News. Archived from the original on July 12, 2022. Retrieved July 12, 2022.
  114. ^ "Twitter seeks four-day trial in mid-Sept over $44 bln Musk deal". Reuters. July 12, 2022. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved July 30, 2022.
  115. ^ Keenan, Alexis (July 19, 2022). "Twitter granted 5-day trial in October in case against Elon Musk". Yahoo! Finance. Archived from the original on July 19, 2022. Retrieved July 30, 2022.
  116. ^ Feeley, Jef (July 15, 2022). "Musk Seeks to Block 'Warp Speed' Twitter Trial Over $44 Billion Deal". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on August 10, 2022. Retrieved July 30, 2022.
  117. ^ Goldsmith, Jill (July 19, 2022). "Elon Musk–Twitter Lawsuit Trial Date Set". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 19, 2022. Retrieved July 30, 2022.
  118. ^ "Twitter-Musk takeover dispute heading for October trial". BBC News. July 19, 2022. Archived from the original on July 19, 2022. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  119. ^ a b Pierce, David (July 26, 2022). "Elon Musk's lawyers say Twitter is making the pretrial process impossible". The Verge. Archived from the original on July 26, 2022. Retrieved July 30, 2022.
  120. ^ Milmo, Dan (July 22, 2022). "Twitter blames revenue slide on Elon Musk takeover uncertainty". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on July 22, 2022. Retrieved July 22, 2022.
  121. ^ Thorbecke, Catherine (July 29, 2022). "The trial between Twitter and Elon Musk now has a date". CNN Business. Archived from the original on July 29, 2022. Retrieved July 29, 2022.
  122. ^ Roth, Emma (August 6, 2022). "Elon Musk challenges Twitter CEO to a 'public debate' about bots". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 6, 2022. Retrieved August 6, 2022.
  123. ^ Sankaran, Vishwam (August 10, 2022). "Elon Musk sells more Tesla shares worth $6.9bn over Twitter deal". The Independent. Archived from the original on August 12, 2022. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
  124. ^ Hays, Kali (August 15, 2022). "Elon Musk scores a rare win in Twitter-acquisition lawsuit as the company is ordered to hand over documents from fired general manager". Business Insider. Archived from the original on August 15, 2022. Retrieved August 24, 2022.
  125. ^ Thorbecke, Catherine (August 22, 2022). "Elon Musk subpoenas former Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey as legal battle heats up". CNN Business. Archived from the original on August 22, 2022.
  126. ^ Schiffer, Zoe; Newton, Casey (August 30, 2022). "How Twitter's child porn problem ruined its plans for an OnlyFans competitor". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 30, 2022. Retrieved October 1, 2022.
  127. ^ Hals, Tom (August 25, 2022). "Elon Musk's 'absurdly broad' Twitter data requests mostly rejected by judge". Reuters. Archived from the original on August 25, 2022. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  128. ^ Vincent, James (August 30, 2022). "Elon Musk says whistleblower's testimony gives him more reasons to dump Twitter deal". The Verge. Archived from the original on September 2, 2022. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  129. ^ Spangler, Todd (August 30, 2022). "Elon Musk's Lawyers Say Twitter Whistle-Blower Allegations Provide Additional Justification for Nixing $44 Billion Deal". Variety. Archived from the original on September 3, 2022. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  130. ^ "Elon Musk demands Twitter trial delay over whistleblower concerns". The Guardian. September 6, 2022. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on September 7, 2022. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
  131. ^ Robertson, Adi (September 7, 2022). "Judge denies Elon Musk's attempt to delay Twitter trial". The Verge. Archived from the original on September 7, 2022. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
  132. ^ Mehta, Ivan (September 12, 2022). "Elon Musk's third termination notice to Twitter is about Mudge's severance". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on September 12, 2022. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
  133. ^ Zakrzewski, Cat (August 24, 2022). "Twitter whistleblower to testify in Congress about security failures". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on August 24, 2022. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  134. ^ Bond, Shannon; Dillion, Raquel Maria (September 13, 2022). "Twitter may have hired a Chinese spy and four other takeaways from the Senate hearing". NPR. Archived from the original on September 15, 2022.
  135. ^ Dang, Sheila; Shepardson, David (September 13, 2022). "Twitter whistleblower reveals employees concerned China agent could collect user data". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 15, 2022.
  136. ^ Chase, Randall; Ortutay, Barbara (July 26, 2022). "Twitter sets September shareholder vote on Elon Musk buyout". Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 2, 2022.
  137. ^ Feiner, Lauren (September 13, 2022). "Twitter shareholders vote to approve Elon Musk's bid to buy the company". CNBC. Archived from the original on September 13, 2022. Retrieved September 13, 2022.
  138. ^ Conger, Kate; Schmidt, Michael S. (October 5, 2022). "Elon Musk Offered to Buy Twitter at a Lower Price in Recent Talks". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 6, 2022. Retrieved October 15, 2022.
  139. ^ Lombardo, Cara; Corse, Alexa (October 6, 2022). "Elon Musk and Twitter at Odds Over Terms of Agreement to Close Deal". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on October 6, 2022. Retrieved October 15, 2022.
  140. ^ Lombardo, Cara; Cimilluca, Dana (October 4, 2022). "Elon Musk Proposes Closing Twitter Deal on Original Terms". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  141. ^ a b c Feely, Jef; Hammond, Ed; Wagner, Kurt (October 4, 2022). "Musk Revives $44 Billion Twitter Bid, Aiming to Avoid Trial". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on October 11, 2022. Retrieved October 4, 2022.
  142. ^ Sen, Anirban; Hals, Tom (October 4, 2022). "Musk reverses course, again: he's ready to buy Twitter, build 'X' app". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  143. ^ O'Brien, Matt (October 5, 2022). "Explainer: What's next in Musk's epic battle with Twitter?". Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 5, 2022. Retrieved October 5, 2022.
  144. ^ Spangler, Todd (October 6, 2022). "Judge Grants Musk Request to Halt Twitter Trial Until Oct. 28 to Allow Parties to Close $44 Billion Deal". Variety. Archived from the original on October 7, 2022. Retrieved October 15, 2022.
  145. ^ Hals, Tom (October 6, 2022). "Twitter lawsuit halted so Elon Musk can close deal by Oct. 28". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 6, 2022. Retrieved October 7, 2022.
  146. ^ Maidenberg, Micah; Higgins, Tim (September 5, 2023). "Elon Musk Borrowed $1 Billion From SpaceX in Same Month of Twitter Acquisition". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on September 6, 2023. Retrieved September 6, 2023.
  147. ^ Levine, Matt (September 6, 2023). "SpaceX Loaned Elon Musk Some Money". Bloomberg news. Archived from the original on September 6, 2023. Retrieved September 6, 2023.
  148. ^ Hals, Tom; Dang, Sheila (October 14, 2022). "Elon Musk is under federal investigations, Twitter says in court filing". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 13, 2022. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  149. ^ Tapp, Tom (October 13, 2022). "Elon Musk Under Federal Investigation Over Twitter Deal, Social Media Giant Says, And It Wants Documents Related To Probe". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on October 14, 2022. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  150. ^ Spangler, Todd (October 20, 2022). "Elon Musk Says He's 'Obviously Overpaying' for Twitter in $44 Billion Deal but Sees Huge Upside Long-Term". Variety. Archived from the original on October 20, 2022. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  151. ^ Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Siddiqui, Faiz; De Vynck, Gerrit; Merrill, Jeremy B. (October 20, 2022). "Documents detail plans to gut Twitter's workforce". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on October 20, 2022. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  152. ^ Folmar, Chloe (October 20, 2022). "Musk said he plans to cut nearly 75 percent of Twitter's workforce: report". The Hill. Archived from the original on October 21, 2022. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  153. ^ Perrigo, Billy (October 24, 2022). "Exclusive: Twitter Employees Protest Elon Musk's Plan to Fire 75% of Workforce". Time. Archived from the original on October 25, 2022. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  154. ^ Hurler, Kevin (October 25, 2022). "Twitter Employees Call Musk Takeover 'Reckless' in Letter". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on October 25, 2022. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
  155. ^ Jacobs, Jennifer; Mohsin, Saleha (October 20, 2022). "Twitter Tumbles as US Weighs Security Reviews for Musk Deals". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on October 21, 2022. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  156. ^ Mohsin, Saleha; Flatley, Daniel (October 21, 2022). "All About CFIUS, the Watchdog Biden May Use to Review Musk's Ventures". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on October 21, 2022. Retrieved October 23, 2022.
  157. ^ Duffy, Kate (October 21, 2022). "The US government is considering a national security review of Elon Musk's $44 billion Twitter acquisition, report says. If it happens, Biden could ultimately kill the deal". Business Insider. Archived from the original on October 21, 2022. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  158. ^ Milmo, Dan (October 21, 2022). "White House denies talk of national security review of Elon Musk ventures". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on October 21, 2022. Retrieved October 23, 2022.
  159. ^ Novak, Matt (October 25, 2022). "White House Insists Elon Musk's Deals Aren't Under National Security Review". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on October 27, 2022. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
  160. ^ Seligson, Paula; Roof, Katie; Hammond, Ed (October 21, 2022). "Twitter, Musk Talks Warm Up as Buyout Closing Deadline Nears". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on October 21, 2022. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  161. ^ Hern, Alex (October 27, 2022). "Elon Musk claims he has acquired Twitter 'to help humanity'". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on October 27, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  162. ^ Saeedy, Alexander; Cooper, Laura; Dummett, Ben (October 6, 2022). "Elon Musk's Revived Twitter Deal Could Saddle Banks With Big Losses". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on October 6, 2022. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  163. ^ Cooper, Laura; Saeedy, Alexander (October 21, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter Takeover Debt to Be Held by Banks Amid Turbulent Markets". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on October 21, 2022. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  164. ^ Amodeo, Jeannine; Tan, Gillian; Seligson, Paula; Hammond, Ed (October 25, 2022). "Musk Tells Bankers He Plans to Close Twitter Deal on Friday". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on October 25, 2022. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  165. ^ Mac, Ryan; Conger, Kate (October 26, 2022). "Elon Musk Visits Twitter as $44 Billion Deal Nears Completion". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 26, 2022. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  166. ^ Massie, Graeme (October 26, 2022). "Elon Musk shows up at Twitter HQ carrying kitchen sink as he closes in on $44bn purchase". The Independent. Archived from the original on October 26, 2022. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  167. ^ Guynn, Jessica (October 26, 2022). "Twitter deal: Why 'Chief Twit' Elon Musk brought along a sink on his visit to Twitter headquarters". USA Today. Archived from the original on October 27, 2022. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  168. ^ Hammond, Ed; Ludlow, Edward (October 26, 2022). "Musk Tells Twitter Staff He Doesn't Plan to Cut 75% Of Jobs". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on October 27, 2022. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  169. ^ Brodkin, Jon (October 27, 2022). "Musk visits Twitter HQ, promises staff he won't fire 75% of them". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on October 27, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  170. ^ Spangler, Todd (October 27, 2022). "Elon Musk, on Eve of Twitter Deal Close, Promises Advertisers It Won't Become a 'Free-for-All Hellscape'". Variety. Archived from the original on October 27, 2022. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  171. ^ Wagner, Kurt; Ludlow, Edward (October 27, 2022). "Tesla Engineers Visit Twitter Office to Review Code for Musk". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on October 27, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  172. ^ Heath, Alex (October 27, 2022). "Twitter's employees await their fate under Elon Musk". The Verge. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  173. ^ a b Siddiqui, Faiz; Dwoskin, Elizabeth (October 27, 2022). "Top Twitter executives fired as Elon Musk takeover begins". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  174. ^ O'Sullivan, Donie; Duffy, Clare (October 27, 2022). "Elon Musk has taken control of Twitter and fired its top executives". CNN Business. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  175. ^ Vanian, Jonathan (October 27, 2022). "Elon Musk now in charge of Twitter, CEO and CFO have left, sources say". CNBC. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  176. ^ Lopatto, Elizabeth (October 27, 2022). "Twitter is now an Elon Musk company". The Verge. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  177. ^ Hetzner, Christiaan (September 1, 2023). "Elon Musk's 'ruthless' plan to seek revenge against Twitter CEO Parag Agrawal revealed by biographer". Fortne. Archived from the original on September 1, 2023. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  178. ^ Hays, Kali (October 27, 2022). "Sometimes it pays to get fired. Twitter's top executives stand to make a total of $88 million between them if Elon Musk ousts them. Here's the payday for each executive". Business Insider. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  179. ^ a b Sorkin, Andrew Ross; Mattu, Ravi; Warner, Bernhard; Kessler, Sarah; Gandel, Stephen; de la Merced, Michael J.; Hirsch, Lauren; Livni, Ephrat (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk Faces Another Big Decision at Twitter". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  180. ^ Conger, Kate; Mac, Ryan; Frenkel, Sheera; Isaac, Mike (October 29, 2022). "Elon Musk Is Said to Have Ordered Job Cuts Across Twitter". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved January 27, 2023.
  181. ^ Murphy, Hannah; McGee, Patrick; Fontanella-Khan, James; Indap, Sujeet (October 30, 2022). "Elon Musk moves quickly to shake up Twitter with plans for job cuts". Financial Times. ISSN  0307-1766. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved January 27, 2023. In this instance, Musk's argument is that Twitter has been mismanaged and that if it were not for his bid, the value of the company's stock would have collapsed, one of the people said. The executives, according to a person familiar with their thinking, are weighing their legal options over the decision. Denying severance payments related to acquisitions is unusual and the "for cause" clause typically requires misconduct to have taken place.
  182. ^ Werpin, Alex (November 1, 2022). "Twitter Co-Founder Jack Dorsey Retained Stake in Company After Elon Musk Acquisition, Filings Show". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on November 1, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  183. ^ Hays, Kali (October 31, 2022). "Jack Dorsey just saved Elon Musk about $1 billion by rolling over his shares of Twitter into a stake in the new private company". Business Insider. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  184. ^ a b Conger, Kate; Hsu, Tiffany; Mac, Ryan (November 1, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter Faces Exodus of Advertisers and Executives". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 2, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  185. ^ Duffy, Clare (November 2, 2022). "Twitter's C-suite clears out as Musk cements power over the company". CNN Business. Archived from the original on November 3, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  186. ^ Collins, Ben (November 10, 2022). "There's an exodus of Twitter executives, including the head of trust and safety, as Musk's chaotic reign continues". NBC News. Archived from the original on November 10, 2022. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  187. ^ Folmar, Chris (October 28, 2022). "Musk plans to end lifetime Twitter bans". The Hill. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  188. ^ Klar, Rebecca (October 31, 2022). "Elon Musk named sole director of Twitter, dissolves board". The Hill. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  189. ^ Conger, Kate (October 28, 2022). "How Twitter Will Change as a Private Company". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  190. ^ Wei, De Wei; Katanuma, Marika (April 11, 2023). "Twitter Company 'No Longer Exists,' Is Now Part of Musk's X". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 11, 2023. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  191. ^ Smith, Connor (April 11, 2023). "Twitter Inc. 'No Longer Exists.' Why Elon Musk Chose Nevada For X Holdings". Barron's. Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  192. ^ Lawler, Richard (October 31, 2022). "Elon Musk is the CEO of Twitter". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 1, 2022. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  193. ^ a b c Conger, Kate; Hirsch, Lauren; Mac, Ryan (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk Starts Putting His Imprint on Twitter". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 29, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  194. ^ Isaac, Mike; Mac, Ryan; Conger, Kate (October 31, 2022). "Elon Musk, Plus a Circle of Confidants, Tightens Control Over Twitter". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  195. ^ Duffy, Clare; O'Sullivan, Donie (October 28, 2022). "Twitter confirms completion of Elon Musk's $44 billion acquisition deal". CNN Business. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  196. ^ a b c d e f g h Harwell, Drew; Lorenz, Taylor; Zakrzewski, Cat (October 28, 2022). "Racist tweets quickly surface after Musk closes Twitter deal". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on October 29, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  197. ^ "Twitter shares to be suspended on NYSE as Musk nears takeover". Reuters. October 27, 2022. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  198. ^ Guynn, Jessica (October 27, 2022). "Elon Musk now owns Twitter. As the $44 billion takeover closes, the turnaround begins: Reports". USA Today. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  199. ^ Dang, Sheila; Roumeliotis, Greg (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter ownership starts with firings, uncertainty". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  200. ^ Nover, Scott (October 28, 2022). "So long for now, TWTR". Quartz. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  201. ^ Bonifacic, Igor (November 9, 2022). "Twitter's $8 a month Blue subscription with verification is rolling out". Engadget. Archived from the original on November 9, 2022. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  202. ^ Dean, Grace (November 1, 2022). "Twitter staff have been told to work 84-hour weeks and managers slept at the office over the weekend as they scramble to meet Elon Musk's tight deadlines, reports say". Business Insider. Archived from the original on November 1, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  203. ^ O'Sullivan, Don; Duffy, Clare (November 4, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter lays off employees across the company". CNN Business. Archived from the original on November 4, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  204. ^ Conger, Kate; Mac, Ryan (November 3, 2022). "Elon Musk Begins Layoffs at Twitter". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 4, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  205. ^ Siddiqui, Faiz; Merrill, Jeremy B. (November 16, 2022). "Musk issues ultimatum to staff: Commit to 'hardcore' Twitter or take severance". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on November 16, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  206. ^ O'Sullivan, Donie; Duffy, Clare (November 16, 2022). "Elon Musk gives ultimatum to Twitter employees: Do 'extremely hardcore' work or get out". CNN. Archived from the original on November 16, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  207. ^ Heath, Alex; Soto, Mia (November 17, 2022). "Hundreds of employees say no to being part of Elon Musk's 'extremely hardcore' Twitter". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 18, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  208. ^ Duffy, Clare; Darcy, Oliver (November 17, 2022). "Twitter employees head for the exits after Elon Musk's 'extremely hardcore' work ultimatum". CNN Business. Archived from the original on November 18, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  209. ^ Brandom, Russell (November 18, 2022). "Elon Musk begins reinstating banned Twitter accounts, starting with Jordan Peterson and the Babylon Bee". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 18, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  210. ^ Duffy, Clare; DeBlanc, Paul (November 19, 2022). "Elon Musk restores Donald Trump's Twitter account". CNN. Archived from the original on November 20, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  211. ^ Mackey, Robert; Lee, Micah (November 29, 2022). "Left-Wing Voices Are Silenced on Twitter as Far-Right Trolls Advise Elon Musk". The Intercept. Archived from the original on November 29, 2022. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  212. ^ Rahman, Abid (November 7, 2022). "Twitter Cracks Down on Impersonators, Permanently Suspends Kathy Griffin". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on November 7, 2022. Retrieved December 5, 2022.
  213. ^ Murphy, Mike (November 6, 2022). "Kathy Griffin kicked off Twitter as 'free-speech absolutist' Elon Musk cracks down on parody accounts targeting him". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on November 7, 2022. Retrieved December 5, 2022.
  214. ^ Ecarma, Caleb (November 21, 2022). "We're Officially in the Elon Musk Era of Content Moderation". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on November 21, 2022.
  215. ^ O'Sullivan, Donie (November 29, 2022). "Twitter is no longer enforcing its Covid misinformation policy". CNN Business. Archived from the original on November 29, 2022. Retrieved December 14, 2022.
  216. ^ Hickey, Daniel; Schmitz, Matheus; Fessler, Daniel; Smaldino, Paul; Muric, Goran; Burghardt, Keith (April 9, 2023). "Auditing Elon Musk's Impact on Hate Speech and Bots". arXiv: 2304.04129 [ cs.SI].
  217. ^ O'Brien, Matt (December 15, 2022). "Twitter changes rules over account tracking Elon Musk's jet". Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 14, 2022. Retrieved December 15, 2022.
  218. ^ Harwell, Drew; Siddiqui, Faiz (December 14, 2022). "Musk bans Twitter account tracking his jet, threatens to sue creator". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on December 15, 2022. Retrieved December 15, 2022.
  219. ^ Darcy, Oliver (December 16, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter bans accounts of CNN, NYT, WaPo journalists". CNN Business. Archived from the original on December 16, 2022. Retrieved December 16, 2022.
  220. ^ Heath, Alex (December 16, 2022). "Elon Musk starts banning critical journalists from Twitter". The Verge. Archived from the original on December 16, 2022. Retrieved December 16, 2022.
  221. ^ Levitz, Eric (December 19, 2022). "The Unhinged Debate Over Twitter and 'Free Speech'". Intelligencer. Archived from the original on December 19, 2022. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  222. ^ Oshin, Olafimihan (December 18, 2022). "Elon Musk polls users about stepping down as head of Twitter". The Hill. Archived from the original on December 19, 2022. Retrieved December 19, 2022.
  223. ^ "Musk's Twitter rules: A dizzying, whiplash-inducing timeline". Associated Press. December 19, 2022. Archived from the original on December 20, 2022. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  224. ^ Balu, Nivedita (December 19, 2022). "Musk poll shows 57.5% want him to step down as Twitter chief". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 19, 2022. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  225. ^ Rahman, Abid (December 19, 2022). "Twitter Users Want Elon Musk to Step Down as CEO Following Poll". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 19, 2022. Retrieved December 21, 2022.
  226. ^ Miller, Monica (December 21, 2022). "Elon Musk to quit as Twitter CEO when replacement found". BBC News. Archived from the original on December 21, 2022. Retrieved December 21, 2022.
  227. ^ Rosa Royle, Orianna (June 13, 2023). "Elon Musk's new CEO Linda Yaccarino issues first rallying cry to employees: 'Let's dig our heels in (4 inches or flat!) and build Twitter 2.0 together'". Fortune. Archived from the original on June 13, 2023. Retrieved June 14, 2023.
  228. ^ Huang, Kalley (December 7, 2022). "Twitter's Rivals Try to Capitalize on Musk-Induced Chaos". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 4, 2023. Retrieved July 3, 2023.
  229. ^ Milmo, Dan (July 6, 2023). "Threads app: Instagram owner launches Twitter rival in 100 countries". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on July 5, 2023. Retrieved July 6, 2023.
  230. ^ Fung, Brian (June 6, 2023). "Twitter threatens to sue Meta after rival app Threads gains traction". CNN Business. Archived from the original on July 6, 2023. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  231. ^ Mehta, Ivan (April 10, 2023). "Ex-Twitter CEO Agrawal, other execs sue firm over unpaid legal bills". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on April 11, 2023. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  232. ^ Roth, Emma (October 3, 2023). "X has to pay $1.1 million in legal fees for ex-Twitter execs". The Verge. Archived from the original on October 4, 2023. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  233. ^ Greene, Jenna (July 13, 2023). "Musk's X Corp lawsuit offers a peek into Wachtell's riches". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 20, 2023.
  234. ^ Mac, Ryan; Hirsch, Lauren (July 7, 2023). "Twitter Sues Law Firm Over $90 Million Payment in Elon Musk Deal". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 7, 2023.
  235. ^ Conger, Kate (August 3, 2023). "So What Do We Call Twitter Now Anyway?". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 3, 2023. Retrieved August 29, 2023.
  236. ^ Weinstein, Austin (October 5, 2023). "SEC Seeks to Force Musk Testimony on Twitter Stock Purchases". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on October 5, 2023. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  237. ^ Saeedy, Alexander; Lombardo, Cara (October 25, 2023). "One Year On, Twitter Continues to Burn a Hole Through Bank Balance Sheets". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on October 25, 2023. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  238. ^ a b c Soave, Robby (April 18, 2022). "Why Does Elon Musk's Potential Twitter Takeover Scare the Media So Much?". Reason. Archived from the original on April 18, 2022. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  239. ^ Perrigo, Billy (April 14, 2022). "'The Idea Exposes His Naiveté.' Twitter Employees On Why Elon Musk Is Wrong About Free Speech". Time. Archived from the original on April 14, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  240. ^ Nix, Naomi; Tiku, Nitasha; Oremus, Will; Siddiqui, Faiz (April 14, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter bid frustrates employees. That's a risk for him". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  241. ^ Tannehill, Brynn (October 26, 2022). "Why Elon Musk's Idea of 'Free Speech' Will Help Ruin America". The New Republic. ISSN  0028-6583. Archived from the original on October 27, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  242. ^ Feiner, Lauren (April 14, 2022). "Cramer: Twitter's board has 'no choice' but to reject Elon Musk's offer". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  243. ^ Palmer, Annie (April 19, 2022). "Elon Musk buying Twitter could have 'grave implications' for civil rights, says Urban League". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 20, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  244. ^ Cox, Kate (April 14, 2022). "An Elon Musk takeover is Twitter's worst nightmare. Here's what happens next". Protocol. Archived from the original on April 14, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  245. ^ Feiner, Lauren (April 22, 2022). "House Republicans demand Twitter's board preserve all records about Musk's bid to buy the company". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 23, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  246. ^ Kerber, Ross (April 21, 2022). "Florida pension leader praises Musk's Twitter bid, criticizes poison pill". Reuters. Archived from the original on April 21, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  247. ^ Manchester, Julia (April 25, 2022). "More than half of voters approve of Musk buying Twitter: poll". The Hill. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  248. ^ Roth, Emma; Brandom, Russell (April 25, 2022). "Twitter accepts buyout, giving Elon Musk total control of the company". The Verge. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  249. ^ Heath, Alex; Sato, Mia (April 25, 2022). "Twitter CEO tells employees no layoffs planned 'at this time' following Elon Musk buyout". The Verge. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  250. ^ Yang, Maya (April 29, 2022). "Twitter employees grill CEO Parag Agrawal over fears of post-Musk exodus". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on April 30, 2022. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  251. ^ Lopatto, Elizabeth (April 25, 2022). "Jack Dorsey says 'Elon is the singular solution I trust' for Twitter's future". The Verge. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  252. ^ Bhattacharya, Ananya (April 27, 2022). "An Indian-born female Twitter executive received a barrage of abuse following a Musk tweet". Quartz. Archived from the original on April 30, 2022. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  253. ^ Newton, Casey (June 17, 2022). "Elon Musk's plan is to run Twitter off the top of his head". The Verge. Archived from the original on June 17, 2022. Retrieved August 6, 2022.
  254. ^ Rai, Sarakshi (April 25, 2022). "Republicans praise Musk's Twitter acquisition; Democrats skeptical". The Hill. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  255. ^ Getahun, Hannah; Metzger, Bryan (May 25, 2022). "Elizabeth Warren says Elon Musk's purchase of Twitter is 'dangerous for our democracy'". Business Insider. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  256. ^ Bove, Tristan (June 6, 2022). "Elon Musk looks like he's trying to blow up his Twitter acquisition. Here's how it may stick him with a $1 billion bill". Fortune. Archived from the original on June 6, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  257. ^ Singman, Brooke (April 25, 2022). "Trump will not return to Twitter even as Elon Musk purchases platform, will begin using his own Truth Social". Fox News. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  258. ^ Knutson, Jacob (May 10, 2022). "Elon Musk says he would reverse Twitter's permanent Trump ban". Axios. Archived from the original on May 10, 2022. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  259. ^ "Mexico President Hopes Musk 'Cleans Up' Twitter". Politiko. April 27, 2022. Archived from the original on May 9, 2022. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  260. ^ Slisco, Aila (April 27, 2022). "Republican FCC Commissioner Won't Stand in Way of Musk Twitter Buy". Newsweek. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  261. ^ "Elon Musk warned he must protect Twitter users". BBC News. April 26, 2022. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  262. ^ Bell, Karissa (April 27, 2022). "After Musk's Twitter takeover, an open-source alternative is 'exploding'". Engadget. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  263. ^ Faife, Corin (April 27, 2022). "Conservative Twitter accounts got boost in followers after Musk acquisition, data shows". The Verge. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  264. ^ Hern, Alex (April 28, 2022). "Left-leaning users leave Twitter in protest at Musk takeover". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on April 29, 2022. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  265. ^ Yurcaba, Jo (April 27, 2022). "Some trans Twitter users say platform under Elon Musk would be 'terrifying'". NBC News. Archived from the original on April 30, 2022. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  266. ^ Migdon, Brooke (April 25, 2022). "LGBTQ+ Twitter users contemplate exit amid Elon Musk takeover". The Hill. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  267. ^ Feiner, Lauren (June 3, 2022). "Musk's Twitter deal faces backlash from advocacy groups that are seeking to block it". CNBC. Archived from the original on June 4, 2022. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  268. ^ O'Kane, Sean (April 25, 2022). "Fisker CEO's Twitter Account Disappears After Musk Acquisition". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  269. ^ Savov, Vlad (April 25, 2022). "Jeff Bezos Takes Aim at Musk's Twitter Deal With China Jibe Vlad Savov". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  270. ^ "Bezos asks if Musk's Twitter deal will signal change in China content policy". Reuters. April 26, 2022. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  271. ^ Fung, Brian (May 5, 2022). "Bill Gates doubts Musk's Twitter buy". CTV News. Archived from the original on May 5, 2022. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
  272. ^ Wood, Tom (May 17, 2022). "Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales Says Twitter 'Could Be Dead In Five Years' Under Elon Musk's Leadership". LADbible. Archived from the original on May 18, 2022. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  273. ^ Kharif, Olga (April 29, 2022). "'Bitcoin Jesus' Returns to Twitter in Latest Endorsement of Musk". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  274. ^ "Google boss Sundar Pichai on what he expects from Twitter under Elon Musk". The Financial Express. May 13, 2022. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  275. ^ Kay, Grace (October 12, 2022). "Even Mark Zuckerberg is confused as to what's going on in the Elon Musk-Twitter saga". Business Insider. Archived from the original on October 12, 2022. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  276. ^ Clark, Mitchell; Heath, Alex (July 8, 2022). "Twitter tells employees not to tweet about Elon Musk deal". The Verge. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  277. ^ Hull, Dana (July 8, 2022). "Tesla Shares Edge Higher After Musk Walks Away From Twitter Deal". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  278. ^ Savov, Vlad (July 10, 2022). "Trump Lashes Out at Elon Musk and 'Rotten' Twitter Deal". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on July 10, 2022. Retrieved July 10, 2022.
  279. ^ Gleeson, Scott (July 12, 2022). "Elon Musk says it's time for Donald Trump to 'sail into the sunset' after getting ripped at Trump rally". USA Today. Archived from the original on July 12, 2022. Retrieved July 30, 2022.
  280. ^ Hartmann, Margaret (July 13, 2022). "The Donald Trump–Elon Musk Feud: A Complete History". New York. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved July 16, 2022.
  281. ^ Kelly, Makena (July 12, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter battle ignites the right's online agitators". The Verge. Archived from the original on July 12, 2022. Retrieved July 30, 2022.
  282. ^ Lawler, Richard (August 23, 2022). "Damning claims about Twitter's bots and security lapses are 'a false narrative,' says CEO". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 23, 2022. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  283. ^ "Elon Musk owns Twitter now — and what happens next is anyone's guess". CBC News. October 27, 2022. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  284. ^ Samuels, Brett (October 28, 2022). "Trump says Twitter in 'sane hands,' but doesn't commit to going back". The Hill. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  285. ^ a b Hearing, Alice (October 28, 2022). "'More chaotic and addictive...or unusable': Twitter users flock to mull life under Musk's rule". Fortune. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  286. ^ a b c d Abbruzzese, Jason; Zadrozny, Brandy (October 28, 2022). "Twitter's first full day under Elon Musk is here, and the mood has already shifted". NBC News. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  287. ^ Dasgupta, Sravasti (October 28, 202). "Right-wing anticipates Trump Twitter return after reports of Musk deal going through". The Independent. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  288. ^ a b c d Leffer, Lauren (October 28, 2022). "Twitter Reacts to Twitter Acquisition". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  289. ^ a b c d Popli, Nik (October 29, 2022). "As Elon Musk Buys Twitter, the Right Is Celebrating". Time. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  290. ^ a b Mollman, Steve (October 30, 2022). "Musk has owned Twitter under a week and big names are already leaving the platform, complaining about a hate surge, and calling for tighter regulation". Fortune. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  291. ^ Egan, Matt (October 31, 2022). "Senate Democrat wants national security investigation of Saudi Arabia's role in Elon Musk-Twitter deal". CNN Business. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  292. ^ a b c Sherman, Natalie (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk: No change to Twitter moderation policy yet". BBC News. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  293. ^ a b Milmo, Dan (October 29, 2022). "Twitter could split into strands allowing users to stage rows, Elon Musk says". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on October 29, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  294. ^ Newton, Casey; Schiffer, Zoe (October 31, 2022). "Twitter braces for layoffs". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 1, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  295. ^ Conger, Kate; Mac, Ryan; Isaac, Mike (November 4, 2022). "Confusion and Frustration Reign as Elon Musk Cuts Half of Twitter's Staff". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 4, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  296. ^ a b c Griffith, Erin (October 28, 2022). "For Many, Elon Musk's Buying Twitter Is a Moment of Celebration". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  297. ^ Kern, Rebecca (November 1, 2022). "Top firm advises pausing Twitter ads after Musk takeover". Politico. Archived from the original on November 1, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  298. ^ Sato, Mia (November 11, 2022). "Another major ad agency recommends pausing Twitter ad campaigns". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 11, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  299. ^ Hsu, Tiffany (November 4, 2022). "Twitter's Advertisers Pull Back as Layoffs Sweep Through Company". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 4, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  300. ^ Haggin, Patience; Vranica, Suzanne (November 3, 2022). "General Mills, Audi and Pfizer Join Growing List of Companies Pausing Twitter Ads". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on November 3, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  301. ^ Joseph, Seb; Scanlon, Krystal (November 14, 2022). "The world's biggest media buyer GroupM is telling advertisers that Twitter is a 'high risk' media buy". Digiday. Archived from the original on November 14, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  302. ^ Hutton, Christopher (October 28, 2022). "Conservative social media alternatives support Musk in Twitter takeover". Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  303. ^ Sharf, Zack (December 30, 2022). "Is 'Glass Onion' Really About Elon Musk? The Film's Release During Musk's Twitter Takeover Is a 'Horrible Accident,' Says Rian Johnson". Variety. Archived from the original on December 30, 2022. Retrieved January 4, 2023.
  304. ^ Peikert, Mark (December 30, 2022). "No, 'Glass Onion' Isn't About Elon Musk, Rian Johnson Says: It's 'a Horrible Accident'". IndieWire. Archived from the original on December 30, 2022. Retrieved January 1, 2023.
  305. ^ Blasi, Weston (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter takeover has mixed response: 'What could possibly go wrong?'". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  306. ^ a b Frenkel, Sheera; Thompson, Stuart A. (October 28, 2022). "Some far-right accounts on Twitter saw surge in new followers, researchers say". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 29, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  307. ^ Metz, Rachel (November 5, 2022). "With Twitter in chaos, Mastodon is on fire". CNN Business. Archived from the original on November 5, 2022. Retrieved November 12, 2022.
  308. ^ a b Hibberd, James (October 28, 2022). "Celebrities Say They're Quitting Twitter as Elon Musk Takes Over: "I'm Out of Here"". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  309. ^ Demopoulos, Alaina (October 31, 2022). "Musk's takeover divides top Twitter users: flee the hate or stay and fight?". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  310. ^ Najib, Shafiq (October 29, 2022). "LeBron James Hopes Musk Takes Twitter Hate Speech Report 'Seriously'". People. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  311. ^ Milmo, Dan (October 30, 2022). "Twitter Trolls Bombard Platform After Elon Musk Takeover". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  312. ^ Sorace, Stephen (October 30, 2022). "Elon Musk responds to LeBron James' tweet about 'scary AF' racial slurs on Twitter". Fox Business. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  313. ^ Darcy, Oliver (December 2, 2022). "Hate speech dramatically surges on Twitter following Elon Musk takeover, new research shows". CNN Business. Archived from the original on December 2, 2022. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  314. ^ Lopatto, Elizabeth (April 22, 2022). "Elon Musk Has Money to Buy Twitter — Now What?". The Verge. Archived from the original on April 22, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  315. ^ Werpin, Alex (April 25, 2022). "Elon Musk Is Twitter's New Ruler: Expect Grand Plans (and Chaos) Ahead". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  316. ^ Bensinger, Greg (April 25, 2022). "Twitter Under Elon Musk Will Be a Scary Place". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  317. ^ Dwoskin, Elizabeth (April 18, 2022). "Elon Musk wants a free speech utopia. Technologists clap back". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on April 18, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  318. ^ Pittis, Don (April 28, 2022). "Will Elon Musk follow the old adage that media freedom is only for those who own the media?". CBC News. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  319. ^ O'Neill, Brendan (May 13, 2022). "Elon Musk and the battle for control of the internet". Spiked. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  320. ^ Gilbert, Ben (April 27, 2022). "Elon Musk buying Twitter is the latest battleground in America's ongoing culture wars". Business Insider. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  321. ^ Hiltzik, Michael (May 1, 2022). "Twitter, Elon Musk and free-speech absolutism". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on May 2, 2022. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  322. ^ Auerbach, David (April 27, 2022). "How the elites lost the Twitter war". UnHerd. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  323. ^ La Monica, Paul R. (May 11, 2022). "Tesla's stock slide raises doubts about Elon Musk's Twitter purchase". CNN Business. Archived from the original on May 11, 2022. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  324. ^ Pressman, Matt (October 20, 2022). "Elon Musk's Pending Purchase of Twitter Weighs Heavy on Tesla — But Should It?". CleanTechnica. Archived from the original on October 21, 2022. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  325. ^ Bakes, Lindsey (April 28, 2022). "Elon Musk is a crypto fan. What does that mean for Twitter?". Deseret News. Archived from the original on April 30, 2022. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  326. ^ Williamson, Kevin D. (April 27, 2022). "What to Think about Elon Musk". National Review. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  327. ^ Lowry, Rich (October 6, 2022). "Liberals Currently Control Twitter. That Needs to Change". Politico. Archived from the original on October 6, 2022. Retrieved October 7, 2022.
  328. ^ "Godspeed to Elon Musk". National Review. April 26, 2022. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  329. ^ Kristian, Bonnie (May 17, 2022). "The Confusion in Our Free Speech Debate". Christianity Today. Archived from the original on May 17, 2022. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  330. ^ Marx, Paris (April 16, 2022). "We Don't Need Billionaires Like Elon Musk". Jacobin. Archived from the original on June 1, 2022. Retrieved July 10, 2022.
  331. ^ Barthold, K. Corbin (April 26, 2022). "Musk's Free Speech Crusade". City Journal. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  332. ^ Van Buren, Peter (October 15, 2022). "Elon Musk should kill Twitter for good". The Spectator World. Archived from the original on October 16, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  333. ^ Young, Cathy (May 16, 2022). "Elon Musk Is Not the Enemy". The Bulwark. Archived from the original on May 16, 2022. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
  334. ^ Soave, Robby (April 26, 2022). "Elon Musk's Takeover Will Not Destroy Twitter or Democracy". Reason. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  335. ^ McElroy, James (May 7, 2022). "Good Punditry in the Twitter Age". The American Conservative. Archived from the original on May 7, 2022. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  336. ^ Milmo, Dan (May 17, 2022). "What are Elon Musk's options in the Twitter takeover deal?". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on May 17, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  337. ^ Fadel, Leila (April 15, 2022). "What would happen to free speech if Elon Musk bought Twitter?". NPR. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  338. ^ O'Brien, Sara Ashley; Duffy, Clare (April 26, 2022). "Twitter has been focused on 'healthy conversations.' Elon Musk could change that". CNN Business. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  339. ^ Constantino, Annika Kim (October 12, 2022). "Harvard expert: The Twitter deal could be bad for Elon Musk—and for the rest of us". CNBC. Archived from the original on October 12, 2022. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  340. ^ Spangler, Todd (April 26, 2022). "How Elon Musk Backed Twitter Into a Corner". Variety. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  341. ^ Balu, Nivedita (June 6, 2022). "Musk threatens to tear up Twitter deal over 'material breach'". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 6, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  342. ^ Wang, Eccho (May 6, 2022). "Analysis: Musk's new Twitter funding could draw TikTok-like U.S. scrutiny". Reuters. Archived from the original on May 6, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  343. ^ Brodkin, Jon (May 6, 2022). "Musk's Twitter deal could face national security probe into foreign investors". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on May 6, 2022. Retrieved May 30, 2022.
  344. ^ Myers, Steven Lee; Mozur, Paul (April 29, 2022). "Musk's Ties to China Could Create Headaches for Twitter". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 29, 2022. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  345. ^ Lin, Liza; Hao, Karen (April 26, 2022). "China Looms Large Over Twitter's Future Under Elon Musk". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  346. ^ Romero, Anthony D. (April 25, 2022). "ACLU Comment on Elon Musk and Twitter Deal". American Civil Liberties Union. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  347. ^ De Vynck, Gerrit; Siddiqui, Faiz; Lerman, Rachel (July 8, 2022). "Elon Musk files to back out of Twitter deal". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on July 8, 2022. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  348. ^ Schulz, Bailey; Collins, Terry; Lee, Medora; Guynn, Jessica (July 8, 2022). "Elon Musk says he won't buy Twitter. Can he just walk away? Twitter is suing; GOP loses 'free speech' savior". USA Today. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  349. ^ Hals, Tom (July 9, 2022). "Analysis:Twitter has legal edge in deal dispute with Musk". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  350. ^ Katje, Chris (July 9, 2022). "Exclusive: Musk's Material Adverse Effect Not 'An Option For Him Walking Away': Merger Expert Tells Benzinga What's Next". Yahoo! Finance. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 10, 2022.
  351. ^ Salmon, Felix (July 9, 2022). "The merger term that could decide Twitter vs. Musk". Axios. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  352. ^ Vanian, Jonathan (July 8, 2022). "Elon Musk has been expressing buyer's remorse over Twitter for months". CNBC. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  353. ^ Serman, Alex (May 13, 2022). "Elon Musk can't just walk away from Twitter deal by paying $1 billion". CNBC. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  354. ^ Jenkins Jr., Holman W. (July 15, 2022). "Elon Musk's Narrow Twitter Escape". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on July 16, 2022. Retrieved July 16, 2022.
  355. ^ Sorkin, Andrew Ross; Giang, Vivian; Gandel, Stephen; Warner, Bernhard; Merced, Michael J. de la; Hirsch, Lauren; Livni, Ephrat (August 23, 2022). "Whistle-Blower Spam Claims Pose Challenge for Twitter". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 23, 2022. Retrieved August 25, 2022.
  356. ^ Primack, Dan (August 23, 2022). "Twitter whistleblower complaint could help Elon Musk". Axios. Archived from the original on August 23, 2022. Retrieved August 25, 2022.
  357. ^ Lopatto, Elizabeth (August 24, 2022). "Elon Musk vs Twitter: the weird number at the heart of the drama". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 24, 2022. Retrieved August 25, 2022.
  358. ^ Levine, Matt (August 23, 2022). "AMC Goes APE". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on August 26, 2022. Retrieved August 28, 2022.
  359. ^ Cho, Winston (October 14, 2022). "In Halting Twitter Lawsuit, Elon Musk May Have Cornered Himself". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 14, 2022. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  360. ^ Zahn, Max (October 22, 2022). "Potential mass layoffs at Twitter could cripple content moderation, some experts say". ABC News. Archived from the original on October 22, 2022. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
  361. ^ a b c d Ecarma, Caleb (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk Is Reportedly Already Cleaning House at Twitter—And the Right Is Loving It". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
  362. ^ O'Neill, Brendan (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk and the great fear of free speech". Spiked. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  363. ^ Tremoglie, Christopher (October 29, 2022). "Will Elon Musk actually bring meaningful change to Twitter?". Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on October 29, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  364. ^ Hirsch, Lauren (October 30, 2022). "Can Elon Musk Make the Math Work on Owning Twitter? It's Dicey". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  365. ^ Waters, Richard (October 30, 2022). "Elon Musk has taken on two seriously difficult problems with Twitter". Financial Times. ISSN  0307-1766. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  366. ^ Ferguson, Kate (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk and Kanye West unfit to rule social media". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  367. ^ Nolan, Hamilton (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter is going to be a disaster". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  368. ^ Ortutay, Barbara; Krisher, Tom; O'Brien, Matt (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk takes over Twitter but where will he go from here?". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on November 1, 2022. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  369. ^ Burgis, Ben (October 31, 2022). "Free Speech Is Too Important To Be Entrusted to Elon Musk". Jacobin. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  370. ^ Conger; Mac, Ryan; Hsu, Tiffany (November 2, 2022). "Elon Musk Takes a Page Out of Mark Zuckerberg's Social Media Playbook". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 2, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  371. ^ a b Shafer, Jack (November 2, 2022). "The Old Twitter Is Doomed". Politico. Archived from the original on November 2, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  372. ^ a b Knolle, Sharon (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk's 1st Day at Twitter: N-Word, Pro-Nazi Tweets Go Unchecked". TheWrap. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  373. ^ Milmo, Dan; Jolly, Jasper; Hern, Alex; Paul, Kari (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk completes Twitter takeover amid hate speech concerns". The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  374. ^ Heath, Alex (October 30, 2023). "X is officially worth less than half of what Elon Musk paid for it". The Verge. Archived from the original on October 30, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  375. ^ Robison, Kylie (October 30, 2023). "X, formerly Twitter, valued at $19 billion in new employee stock plan". Fortune. Archived from the original on October 30, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  376. ^ Primack, Dan (October 29, 2023). "Fidelity has marked down the value of Twitter/X by 65%". Axios. Archived from the original on October 29, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  377. ^ "It's been one year since Elon Musk bought Twitter. Now called X, the service has lost advertisers and users". CBS News. October 27, 2023. Archived from the original on October 28, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  378. ^ a b Fung, Brian; Duffy, Clare (October 27, 2023). "How a single year of Elon Musk turned Twitter into a husk of its former self". CNN. Archived from the original on October 27, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  379. ^ Jacobino, Nicholas; Lipton, Josh (October 27, 2023). "X: Elon Musk's Twitter acquisition one year later". Yahoo! Finance. Archived from the original on October 27, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  380. ^ Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. (December 7, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter Takeover Is in Its Early Chapters, But a Book Is Already Coming". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Archived from the original on December 7, 2022. Retrieved November 8, 2023.
  381. ^ Mezrich, Ben (November 2, 2023). "What it's like to work with Elon Musk: the executive who had his ear, then was fired". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN  0307-1235. Archived from the original on November 3, 2023. Retrieved November 8, 2023.
  382. ^ Oremus, Will; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Ellison, Sarah; Merrill, Jeremy B. (October 27, 2023). "A year later, Musk's X is tilting right. And sinking". The Washington Post. ISSN  0190-8286. Archived from the original on October 27, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  383. ^ Dixit, Pranav (October 28, 2023). "Twitter takeover: how a year of Elon Musk rendered the platform useless". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on October 28, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  384. ^ Klee, Miles (October 4, 2023). "Twitter Is at Death's Door, One Year After Elon Musk's Takeover". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on October 5, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  385. ^ Peters, Jay (October 27, 2023). "Elon Musk's Twitter, one year later". The Verge. Archived from the original on October 27, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  386. ^ Counts, Aisha (October 25, 2023). "X, One Year Later: How Elon Musk Made a Mess of Twitter's Business". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on October 25, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  387. ^ Conger, Kate (October 27, 2023). "How Elon Musk Changed the Meaning of Twitter for Users". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 27, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  388. ^ Kirshner, Alex (October 27, 2023). "Everything Elon Musk Broke in the Year He's Owned Twitter". Slate. Archived from the original on October 27, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  389. ^ Burgess, Annika (November 1, 2023). "A year after Elon Musk bought Twitter, X is now a 'worthless' platform some say is no longer safe for activists". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on November 1, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  390. ^ Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (October 27, 2023). "Hahahaha" ( Tweet). Archived from the original on November 7, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023 – via Twitter.
  391. ^ Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (October 26, 2023). "Whoa, Rolling Stone is still alive!?" ( Tweet). Archived from the original on November 7, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023 – via Twitter.
  392. ^ Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (October 27, 2023). "Irony overload!!" ( Tweet). Archived from the original on November 7, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023 – via Twitter.

Further reading

External links